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Lecture 12

LINC47H3 Lecture Notes - Lecture 12: Continuous And Progressive Aspects, Louise Bennett-Coverley, Palenquero

Course Code
Karen Mc Crindle

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FRE/LINC47H - Pidgin and Creole Languages
Session 12 - Class outline
Finish Chapter 6 - Word Order (Reading p. 233-6)
SVO word order - like most superstrate and substrate languages
o SVO subject verb object
o Commonly seen in creoles
SOV is seen when the object pronouns come before the verb in the substrate languages
o Object pronoun= her, him (for example)
Where does the word order transfer come from?
o The word order transfer probably comes from the superstrate language since the
creole usually matches the with superstrate languages
o If the influence is not seen in the superstrate language, then the substrate language
has the influence in the creole’s word order
Some evidence of influence of SOV substrate languages in Atlantic creoles and some Indo-
European languages, for example object pronouns which precede the verb
o Ex. S yo te hablo ≈ Palenquero CS i ta ablá bo
o (F je te parle, E I speak to you; I you speak)
Same construction found in some Niger-Congo languages
In English-based creoles, no do support and no inversion of subject and auxiliary verb to
form questions
Parallels with Yoruba
o Ex. E He doesn't wear shoes ≈ CE im no wier shuuz
o Ex. E Does he wear shoes? ≈ CE im wier shuuz?
o Ex. F Où est-il? HCF Kote li ye? (E where he is?)
Do-support is seen in English
o Ex. I do wear shoes
Do is the addition to the main verb of the sentence
The do-support is not transferred to the creole
The subject-auxiliary inversion is seen in English. However this inversion isn’t seen in
The intonation makes a difference in the meaning of the sentence
o A certain intonation expresses a declarative meaning while another intonation
expresses an interrogative meaning
Creole Texts
Madigra - Pòl Larak (1920-2007) Haiti
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FRE/LINC47H - Pidgin and Creole Languages
The English form of Mardigra is Mardi gras
Pòl Larak was born in Haiti and he fled to USA because of a regime. He lived in USA for
a while. He was angry about the political situation in Haiti. He was open about these
issues in his writings.
o He became a French teacher in New York
o At some point, he was on exile for 25 years. He returned to Haiti 25 years later.
He fled again because of another regime
o He won many literary awards
o He wrote about the political situations in Haiti
Analysis of the passage
o Lexical words that come from French
Met to wear in French
Maske mask
o Since consonant clusters are not seen in Niger-Congo, consonant clusters are not
seen in the creole as well
o Ayiti Haiti
o Mas la pran ri
There is an inversion of the determiner
Pren (to take) and ri (to laugh) are two different verbs. When there verbs
are put together as one word as a serial verb, the meaning of the word
changes. The meaning of pran ri is start laughing
o Ak comes from the word avec (with in French)
o K’ap chante ponpe danse
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FRE/LINC47H - Pidgin and Creole Languages
Ap is a progressive tense prevernal marker which comes from the word
This phrase translates to singing, jumping dancing
o Ap prepare means is preparing
o Kouri comes from the French word courir which means to to run
Kouri is in past tense form
o This creole is mesolectal
English translation of the passage from above
Larak is making a contrast between the distress of the political distress faced by the
Haitians and the enjoyment of Haiti through Mardi Gras
Haitians are strong and warm individuals but they are oppressed by the government
o 5% of the Haitian population are elite and powerful while the rest of the 95% are
poor Haiti is still the poorest country in the West Hemisphere today
A mask is placed in the Haitians’ faces they are happy through Mardigra but when you
remove the mask, they are upset because of the oppression
Back to Africa, By Louise Bennett (1919-2006) - Jamaica
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