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Lecture 3

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Chandan Narayan

L1NA01 Sept. 27 Phonetics 2 Only stops can be nasal or oral. Vowels are sounds produced with no major obstruction in the vocal tract so that the air can flow relatively freely through the mouth. Criteria of Vowel Classification Monopthongs and Dipthongs Whether vowels remains stable throughout the vowel or not  Monopthongs (simple vowels) o vowels produced with one stable vowel sound o hot hit met mat cut could  Dipthongs (complex vowels) o vowels produced with a change in vowel quality o Consists of a vowel and a glide (/j/ or /w/) o hide loud boy say grow Tongue, Body, Height High  heed, hid, who’d, hood Mid  head, hayed, hud, arrest, hoe, boy Low  had, hot, hide, how Backness of the Tongue Body Backness of the highest point of the tongue body  Front o heed, hid, hay, head, hat  Central o hud, arrest, hi, how  Back L1NA01 Sept. 27 o who’d, hood, hoe, boy, hot Lip-rounding Rounded  who’d, hoed, hood, boy Unrounded  all other vowels Tenseness  Tense vowels are produced with more extreme articulation than their lax counterparts  Tense vowels can occur word-finally in English but lax vowels cannot (except for schwa) Syllables How to find?  “Chest pulse theory” o Pulses of respiratory muscle activity correlate with syllables – false  “Jaw opening cycle” o One cycle of oscillation of the jaw corresponds to a syllable – false  “Amplitude peaks” o The number of syllables corresponds to the number of distinct amplitude peaks in the acoustic signals Evidence for syllables  Native speaker intuition  Setting words to music/poetry Syllabic and non-syllabic sounds Syllables have internal structure  Nucleus: centre of the syllable, usually a vowel  Onset: consonants that come before the nucleus  Coda: consonants that follow the nucleus L1NA01 Sept. 27 Sometimes consonants occupy the nucleus position and these are called syllabic consonants and marked by [ ] under the consonant.  In English, only liquids and nasals can be syllabic o Table [tejbl] Stress When words consist of more than one syllable, some syllables are perceived as more prominent than others  upón prèsent vs. presént When there are multiple st
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