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NROC34 Lec 3.docx

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Karen Williams

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NROC34 Lec 3 POSTER ASSIGNMENT: - Pg 50, 68, 101, 109 o Make a summary of the article o Posted as a powerpoint handout o 6 slides per page o 1 page only - individual poster assigned reading will appear in “MY GRADES” - DUE MAR 1!!!!! Video Assignments: - Next one is Feb 15 - No way of studying for it because we will think it is what she wants us to study, therefore we focus on only certain things Critical Review: - Due Apr 5 - Based on 1 paper - Will get ONE MONTH to do Posts to blackboard: - 1% is for posting the poster online by mar 18 - 1% is the journal articles posted on blackboard o OWN INPUT ON WHAT YOU THINK IS COOL o Need 10 journal posts  Min of 2 for each lec theme  Needs to be before the last day of lecture Bats and Moths P 121 – 130 - Bats detect moths through echolocation - Different ways for bats to echolocate : o Through mouth  Different mouth sizes = different frequencies Neuroanatomical basis of bat echolocation - Ultrasound is produced by bats hunting prey o David Griffen (undergraduate) pointed an ultrasound detector at a bat ad found bats emit ultrasonic calls o Received info from ultrasonic sounds o Bat can open its mouth an emit different sounds: high frequency, short wavelength or low frequency and long wavelength Bats can produce frequency modulated calls - Bats that eat insects produce FM calls and typically end in a terminal pulse rate o Insectivorous bats only, not fruitivorous - Other bats release constant frequency calls – terminal pulse is missing - Terminal pulse might be important in finding a small, moving target Bats’ sound production - Laryngeal echolocation o Usually big brown bats emit this kind of noise  Very big – called “Big brown bat” o Or whiskered bats  Very, very small - Also produce sound through nose-leaf o Leaf-nosed bats - By comparing small sized bats with the large sized bats and looking at different sizes of mouth and looking at frequency of sound they produce at, Sonar beam width decreases with bat size and increases relative to wavelength - For large bats, they can use longer wavelengths but small bats to receive same optimal, need to release a short wavelength How does a bat find a food target in space? - Emit sound – bounce off object and collect the sound through their ears - Perception and memory for those sounds tell them to fly towards or away - Continually refresh images by producing more sounds - If a bats call is indicating some object, certain characteristics of the call should indicate something about distance, direction and target type Do bats detect water bodies…. - Some insects emerging from water at night – bats fly over and catch them or drink the water - Direction of sounds bounces towards the bat as it flies over the water – echoes coming back to the bat are very specific o Indicates it is water Quantitative analysis of bat’s responses - Let bats fly under red light o Since they forage at night - Used smooth plates to cover water in the center o Some plates were either smooth or textured - Smooth plates reflected sounds like water would – textured plates reflected sounds like sand would - Bats would try to drink even if the smooth plate was on something like a table - Found out bat would drink from plate (or attempt to) by measuring: o Drinking-like behavior - Did this by first going in the field and describing drinking-like behavior, make sure bats were thirsty o Deprived of water so they would quench at nearest place Echolocation signatures of different surfaces - Smooth plates are similar to the water, textured similar to sand - Tested 4 species of bats on textured and smooth - Bats had same motivation level for water - Results: Made drinking attempts more with smooth plates – made 0 attempts with textured plates o Also attempted to drink from smooth metal plates - All drank more from smooth plates than textured plates Do conflicting sensory stimuli affect the bat’s use of echolocation - Plates don’t look, smell or taste like water o Bats are using conflicting modalities about whether that surface is a plate or water - Bats were allowed to fly under red light or under complete darkness o Tested the bats in the same way:  Similarly motivated no matter the light condition - Prediction: bats use vision to discriminate between a metal plate and a water surface – we would expect bats to attempt drinking from the metal plate more often in the DARK - Results: took drinking attempts to smooth metal plates more under complete darkness Is the ability to use the reflective sounds from a water surface innate or learned? - Took young, naïve, juvenile bats and compared to adults: o Few drank from the metal under the light conditions but had similar drinking attempts under dark conditions o Looked very similar to adult pattern o THEREFORE, this ability to use reflective sounds is INNATE in bats - Ability to use reflective sounds is INNATE as was seen when juveniles had same responses as their parents How does a moth detect a bat? - Use echolocation - Insects listen to: o Courtship sounds o Each other o Moths produce plumes of odour and pay attention to olfactory cues as well - Some species of moths, instead of releasing a pheromone, use sound cues - Other noctuid moths can detect bats but moths of the saturnid family lack ears - If a moth has ears, predict an ear-like structure to change with sounds - Mechanical vibration changes – affected by mechanoreceptors Researchers looked at moths - found that b1 receptors go to mechanoreceptors on thoracic plate o In noctuid moth that have ears, there are the same structures in saturnid moths Insect hearing and sound production - Hearing: o Tympanal organs o In arctiid moths tympanal organs are on the metathorax o In crickets, tympanal organs are on forelegs - Sound production o Tymbals are sound producing membranes on the metathorax of Arctiid moths - Moths can produce sound to attract females by tympals - TM = tympanic membrane o Center part is an opaque zone (OZ) where all the neurons are attached – surrounded by transparent zone (TZ) Moth detects bat’s echolocation - By using AP, can record AP from A1 and A2 in responses to sounds from bat - Moth can detect direction of bat’s approach, depending on cell being hit - Able to detect and hear bat and which direction it is coming from Response of the moth tympanal membrane to sound - Some response to stimulus in the B cells - Many responses in auditory area - Moth is capable of responding to the frequencies that the bat produces o As it responds, the changes in membrane activity are what travel through the interneuron Using sound to evade a threat - How does a moth evade a bat? Bats and tiger moths - Bats eat many moths – both fly at night - Insectivorous bats can detect moth and vice versa Which cells in a moth’s ear respond to bat calls? - Can describe bat’s call as approach - E
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