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Lecture 4

Notes - Lecture 4 (February 03).docx

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Matthias Niemeier

NROC64H3SSensory and Motor SystemsLecture 4020312SAQ Describe the 3 pathways of the visual system that are differently specialized for motion colour and shape MGN PGN NONMNONPIntroductionSense of Hearing Audition Detect sound perceive and interpret nuancesSense of balance vestibular system Head and body location head and body movementsThe Nature of SoundSound Audible variations in air pressure water pressure etcSound Frequencyof cyclessecond expressed in Hz Cycle Distance bw successive compressed patches Hi frequency More cycles in same space Range 2020000 HZ Pitch Perceptual aspect of frequencies Loudness Perceptual aspect of intensity Frequency depends on how many cycles what the amplitude is The Structure of the Auditory SystemEarly Auditory Pathway Stages Sound waves Tympanic Membrane Ossicles Oval Window Cochlea Fluid Movement of basilar and tectorial membrane sheering forces Sensory neuron responseThe Middle Ear Function of Ossicles Sound ForceLever analogybalancing of the soundgreater pressure ossicles work like levers Amplification PressureForcearea20x greater pressure at oval window than tympanic membrane moves fluids Attenuation Reflex Response where onset of loud sound causes tensor tympani and stapedius muscle contraction Functions Adapt ear to loud sounds avoid saturations damage filter out low frequency understand speech better high freq reduce sound of our own voiceThe Inner Ear
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