Chapter 25.docx

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21 Apr 2012
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Procedural Memories
Procedural learning involves learning a motor response to a sensory input. It’s broken into
associative and nonassociative learning
Nonassociative learning
Nonassociative is a change in behavioral response to a single type of stimulus
Habituation: learning to ignore a stimulus that lacks meaning
Sensitization: learning that evokes an enchanced response to all stimuli, even stimulu that did not
leicit a response earlier
Associative learning
Associative learning: we form associations between two events. The two types are classical and
instrumental conditioning.
Classical conditioning: learning to associate a situmulus that causes a response (unconditioned) with
a stimulus that previously caused no response (conditioned). This conditioned response is caused
when the US and CS are paired. The sound of the bell predicted the presentation of meat, and thus
the US and CS elicited the same response. The CS must be presented simultaneously with or
immediately precede the US to elicit the desired response
Instrumental conditioning: refers to a type of learning by which an animal learns to associate a
certain stimulus with either positive or negative reinforcement (reward or punishment). A particular
behavior is associated with a particular consequence.
Simple Systems: Invetebrate Models of Learning
Advantages of invertebrate nervous system: small NS, large neurons, identifiable neurons,
identifiable cirtcuits, simple genetics
Nonassociative Learning in Aplysia
The gill- withdrawal reflex in Aplysia californica occurs when a jet of water sprays the slug in its
siphon, the gill retracts. This reflex is useful for studying procedural memory because it display
habituation.
The siphon sends sensory info through its axon to the abdominal ganglion to
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