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Lecture 8

NROC64H3 Lecture Notes - Lecture 8: Medial Rectus Muscle, Inferior Rectus Muscle, Lateral Rectus Muscle

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Matthias Niemeier

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Lecture 8
Posture and gaze control
1. What is direct feedback and what is internal feedback?
2. How is feedback different from feedforward?
1. Posture
a. Contributions from pressure receptors
b. Vestibular contributions
c. Visual contributions
d. Interactions
e. Synopsis
2. Eye movements
Contributions from pressure receptors
1. Support area
a. Center of gravity
b. Small support area in humans
c. Pressure receptors
2. Responses to pressure distribution
a. Tonic response
i. Positive supporting reaction
b. Transient component
i. Extensor thrust
c. Stepping reaction if COG outside critical area
Vestibular contributions
1. Static vestibular reactions
a. Otolith organs
i. Absolute head position in space
1. Head righting reflex
2. Static vestibulo-ocular reflex
3. Tonic postural vestibular reflexes
2. Dynamic vestibular reaction
a. Semicircular canals velocity sensitive
i. Respond more quickly
b. VOR
i. Phases
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1. Quick
2. Slow
c. Postural vestibular reflexes
Visual contributions
1. Visual cues about upright
2. Dynamic responses
a. Optic flow
i. OKN
3. Eye in head signals
a. Efference copy
1. Vestibular lesions
a. Imbalanced push-pull
b. False sense of rotations
c. Recalibration with vision
2. Motion sickness
3. Proprioceptive neck reflexes
a. Complementary to vestibular neck reflex
i. Any head position possible
1. E.g.
a. Vestibular
i. Head down Front legs extend
b. Propriception
i. Dorsiflexion Front legs extend
1. Eye in visual space (+) / Eye related to head (-)
a. Retina / Oculomotor system
2. Head in visual space (+) / Head in inertial space (+)
a. Retino-Oculomotor / Vestibular system
3. Head in space (+) / Head relative to body (-)
a. Retino-Oculomotor-Vestibular / Neck joint receptors
4. Body in space (+) / Body in space (+)
a. Retino-Oculomotor-Vestibular-Neck / Pressure receptors
5. Postural commands
a. Receives anticipatory feed forward innervation
6. Postural adjustment
7. M. Spindles
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