41. What is determinism? Does it preclude free-will?
Says that everything in our lives are predetermined events that have been planned
by a force greater than us
Restricts free will because if everything we do has already been planned and
decided for us, our reactions to anything is never organic but part of the master
plan of the influencing forces
42. Is Free-Will a matter of degree? Why, or why not?
Free will is not a matter of degree
Its either exists or doesn‟t
It‟s not something that can be ambiguous
43. What are the three factors necessary and jointly sufficient for evolution by natural selection?
45. Should we regard evolution by natural selection as having an overall direction?
No because you cannot control who will be the fittest. Traits are given randomly
We adjust according to environment
46. How, for Richards, does the human capacity for morality differ from the altruistic
dispositions of other animals?
Humans have a higher competency level than other animals
47. How does Richards attempt to show that there is no “naturalistic fallacy”? Does he succeed?
Fallacy is that animals have the same ability to feel and comprehend certain
48. Specifically, Richards argues that all ethics requires empirical assumptions. Does this show
that the naturalistic fallacy is not a fallacy?
49. What is the parallel, and what is the disanalogy, between the uses of „ought‟ in (A) „Since
there is lightning, thunder ought to follow.‟ and (B) „Since each man has evolved to advance the
community good, each ought to act altruistically.‟?
50. What is Richards's special variant of evolutionary ethics? Does it escape the problems of
other versions by focusing on our instinctual tendency to favour community interests?
51. What, according to Bennett, do Huck Finn, Heinrich Himmler and Jonathan Edwards have in
52. What is the fatal flaw of the classic form of emotivism holding that moral judgments are
merely equivalent to expressions of approving or disapproving emotion („booh!‟; „hurray!‟)?
53. How does the analogy of colour help us to understand how an improved form of emotionism
could combine both subjective and objective answers to the Euthyphro problem?
If a person their emotions they wouldn‟t feel bad for inflicting psychical or
emotional pain on their loved ones
54. What are the five domains of morality distinguished by Haidt and Bjorklund?
55. How is each domain related to a characteristic range of emotions?
56. Which of the five domains are typical of “liberal” and “conservative” ethics respectively?
57. What is, according to Haidt and Bjorklund, the causal order linking emotions and moral
58. What else influences our moral judgments besides emotions and reason?
59. How is the origin of moral judgment related to the justification of moral judgments?
If one person passes a judgement it influences the judgement of another
60. What are the distinctive features of Singer's version of utilitarianism?
Respecting the self and others
Respecting the rights of others
Respect for self interests
Swinish Pleasure Problem
If that were so, there‟d be nothing to complain about. For
“if the sources of pleasure were precisely the same to human
beings and to swine, the rule of life which is good enough for
the one would be good enough for the other.”
How are our pleasures superior to swine‟s?
• Because they are not merely sensory?
• Because they are more complicated?
• Because they have a temporal development we can describe
in terms of a conception of time?
• Because we can discuss them?
Questions for Philo 61-80
61. Role of reason in Singers conception of ethics should be universal. Everybody should have a basic