Class Notes (835,798)
Canada (509,410)
Philosophy (940)
PHLB07H3 (65)
Lecture 3

PHLB07 - Week 2, Lecture 3 Notes

3 Pages
148 Views
Unlock Document

Department
Philosophy
Course
PHLB07H3
Professor
Kelin Emmett
Semester
Winter

Description
PHLB07 - Week 2, Lecture 3 Weekly Readings: Defending Cultural Relativism - Ruth Benedict The Challenge of Cultural Relativism - James Rachels Morality is a Socially Constructed Response - Jesse Prinz (optional) Psychological Egoism Two kinds of egoism: • Psychological Egoism  Descriptive claim - all people are in fact selfish all the times (Hobbes). • Ethical Egoism  Normative claim - we all ought to look out for #1 (Ayn Rand). If psychological egoism is true it would undermine the practice of ethics altogether: 1) Psychological Egoism is true. 2) If one morally ought to do something the one must be able to do that thing (the "ought implies can" principle). 3) Ethical behaviour requires that people (sometimes) act altruistically. 4) But given 1) people cannot act altruistically. :. 5) We can't ethically require that people act altruistically, so there's no point practicing ethics. Psychological Egoism - Joel Feinberg Feinberg's understanding of psychological egoism: each individual is capable of pursuing only her own self interest. • For any action, one's own self- interest is the goal. • Even altruistic acts are ultimately one for self-interested reasons. • This is often understood as pursuit of pleasure (pleasant sensation). - Not an ethics theory, it is a descriptive theory. Why plausible? A) My desires are always my desires, so I'm only ever trying to satisfy my own desires. B) Whenever we get what we want we feel some satisfaction, so what we really aim at is our own satisfaction. C) People often deceive themselves; altruism is always masks self-serving motivations. D) The threat of punishment or the promise of reward is a powerful tool utilized in moral education. A) My desires are always my desires, so I'm only ever trying to satisfy my own desires. Argument A) is a logical fallacy. • The statement is a tautology: For every action I must be motivated by some desires/purpose that I am trying to satisfy.  :. So I'm always trying to satisfy my desires/purposes. • But this says nothing about the objects o my desires/purposes.  I might have a desire that you get some pleasure. Genesis VS the aim of the action: • That my purposes (ends, desires) are my own, does not entail that they are selfish (self- regarding). • Argument A) equates motivated actions (vs. physical impulse such as sneezing) with selfish action. • But this is question-begging (it assumes that to be an action is to be selfishly motivated). B) Whenever we get what we want we feel some satisfaction, so what we really aim at is our own satisfact
More Less

Related notes for PHLB07H3

Log In


OR

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


OR

By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.


Submit