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Lecture 6

lecture 6 political science

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Ramu Gopalan

Forced Migration POLA81 WEEK6 Lecture’s objectives 1) Define forced migration 2) Define agency 3) Identify metaphors and political discourse 4) Analyse relation between refugees and other political actors 5) Analyse the involvement of NGOs 1) Define forced migration (against will, it is imposed on you) Main characteristics: - External constraints –force affecting situation (persecution) -personal decision-people can create their own reality -contexts- we need to make reference to the context culture, traditions, gender roles, etc, actual conditions people live in, depends on the society on lives in Why is it important? -distinctive experience –it is different from others for a reason, ie refugee is different from immigrant, etc, there must be something particular to this experience that makes us call it forced migration or separate from other types of migration -Numbers- unique characteristics, geographically, magnitude, millions and millions of people, estimates where the majority of forced migrations occur or exist , there is a divide in numbers that has to do with class, political stability, rich poor, status, etc it is a political issue -special claims, imposes morality, moral claims behind it, forced migration is connected to morality because they ditch their country leave home and go elsewhere, it deals with morality because one is leaving for various reasons not typical reason such as better life, it is because they are being kicked out forcefully or their life may be in danger, hence they must leave to protect their lives, morality of the receiving state either must reject or accept refugee and to be flexible, morality of the state, whether they accept the individual who is migrating forcefully 1) Define forced migration -Reactive vs proactive (Richmond) , reactive predetermined no choice whereas proactive free choice; you can make your own decisions -Reactive- have no choice, eg, slavery, racism, etc -proactive-you choose this, example tourism, retirement -Voluntary vs involuntary (Van Hear) -these two alternatives don’t pay enough attention to agency , that is the problem that turton deals with these two -Purposive actors (Turton) People who have purpose and act on it make informed descisions, it’s a better way of understanding forced migration because of practical and moral reasons -practical reasons- the real thing that occurs, what people really do, what kinds of decisions they really make, given their circumstances, refugees have decisions to make , have capacity however limited to make a choice -morals reasons-it links their experiences with us, we all compromise and make decisions, he says we need to connect and realize that these refugees are human beings too and that we must connect with each other and be understanding, not only help them but also understand them, if we do this we will be creating moral solidarity, especially putting ourselves in the same situation, if we were in the same situation we expect help in return as well 2) Define agency -knowledge ability –understand your situation, knowledge of what’s going on, what one is going through -capability to command skills-this is when one reasons and makes logic of the situation, you assess the situation and then you act on the knowledge make a decision, it can be material or non-material, from faking an identity, to speak languages, bribe people, apply for visa, family connections, etc, in other words, acting on escaping or coping with the problem, to come up with possible alternatives Vs. Image of passive victims, recipients of aid, knowledge ability and capability vs the image of helpless victim where they are not an actor, they are just a victim, they cannot do anything at all, so they must be helped before even asking them of the issue, help the poor victim, because they are helpless and in need, they are suffering 2)Define agency Constraints of the refugee Con
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