A+ Notes: Multiculturalism

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1 Oct 2011

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- Confed. debates – most Cdns don’t care much
- since 1867, Cdn pop expanded considerably
- pop growth occurred unevenly
- rapid growth in West, stagnation in East (esp. in Que. & Atl. Can)
- shift of pop from EW
- Con. can’t be changed by any one level of gov’t – hard to change b/c everyone would want
- while pop. has changed radically, Con. hasn’t changed with it
- political institutions didn’t change
- regional representation in Senate, not prov. rep. (24 senators per region – Que,
Ont, West, Atl.)
- one senator per 685 000 ppl in BC
- one senator per 34 000 ppl in PEI
- Senate seats don’t satisfy anyone
- not rep. by pop
- Que. doesn’t have more seats (24 for Que, 81 for Eng. Can)
- Abor. don’t have formal rep
- not territorial rep
- Senate not changed, b/c everyone wants to change Senate, no agreement
about how to change it
- pop. growth largely caused by immigration
- 20% of Cdns are foreign born (uneven % in diff. parts)
- by 2030, 50% of Cdns foreign born or foreign-born parents
- immigrant source countries are changing
- 1950s, most from Britain, 2010, most from Asia
- 10% of Cdns are visible minority, up from 5% in 1980
- for immigrant Cdns, more likely to identify themselves as Cdns 1st then prov.
- Que. referendum, feds granted citizenship to immigrants
- lost to “money and ethnic vote”
- new view of country – unhyphenated Cdn, added “Cdn” to ethnic category for census
Royal Commission on Bilingualism and Biculturalism
- commissioned in 1963, reports in 1969
- Canada is bilingual country – fed gov’t is bilingual
- Official Languages Act 1969 (for fed. gov’t)
- NB became only officially bilingual prov
- Problems:
- groups object to notion of bicultural
- report mentioned that other cultures were here & contributed to fabric of Can
- founding of Parti Quebecois
- October Crisis of 1970 (rare case of political instability)
- FLQ felt they were treated like blacks in Amer., attacked Eng-Que
- angered Trudeau that Eng-Que were less Quebecker than Fre-Que
- War Measures Act, suspend civil liberties (Trudeau: job of gov’t to
preserve peace and order)
- CBC Archives: Just Watch Me, 1970 (order vs freedom)
- Trudeau objected that Que was nation
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- also objected that we belonged to ethnic groups that don’t give choice,
imprisoning ppl
- Trudeau: no official culture, all citizens are Cdn, ethnicity & culture
should be free will
- Multiculturalism Act 1971/1988 – even entrenched in CCRF
- gov’t actively maintain & promote minority cultures
- French is a lang., not a nation Quebecois foundation is not heritage
- multiculturalism replaces bicultural/unhyphenated debate
- multiculturalism became signature Cdn characteristic, Cdn mosaic
contrasted against Amer melting pot
- cultural determinism is illiberal
- multiculturalism policy aimed to counter Quebec claim that their culture is special
- combat view that indiv. inherently belong to ethnic group, must be choice of indiv.
- aim to integrate immigrants
Criticism of Multiculturalism
- trapping immigrants in cultural boxes
- immigrants came to escape cultural prosecution
- should promote core Cdn values
- Disneyland Multiculturalism
- we don’t seriously practice culture from homelands (eat the foods, wear
traditional clothes)
- we create groups here that don’t exist elsewhere
- Que diff. from French
- limits of liberal tolerance (as long as it doesn’t interfere with core values)
- ex. enforce religious views on kids
- multiculturalism and Quebec
- focus preservation of French language in Que
- vertical mosaic – clear economic gaps b/w ethnic groups
- ethnic ghettos
- Quebec – “nation within united Canada”
- subjective features of a nation, such as national consciousness
- need objective features to become nation
- ethnic nation – same ancestral origin
- cultural nation – assimilated to same linguistic, cultural, historical group
- civic nation- each indiv. rep. self as part of same country
- socio-political nation – political community w/ majority of indiv in world that share same
language, culture, history
- feelings of national sentiment irrelevant
- tolerance
- French Cdns outside Que national minority, historical minority
- French Cdn nation doesn’t exist anymore Acadian nation in NB & Quebec nation
- Que. nation has national majority of French-Que. & national minority of Anglo-Que&
indiv. of other descent
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