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Lecture 2

POLC38H3 Lecture Notes - Lecture 2: Ideal Type, Informal Sector, Flattening


Department
Political Science
Course Code
POLC38H3
Professor
Paul Kingston
Lecture
2

Page:
of 8
Lecture 2 January 16th 2013
Lecture Outline
1. What is ‘the state’ (in theory)?
2. What has ‘the state’ been (in practice), especially throughout much of the Global South?
3. What has state formation looked like in the Global South?
4. What is clientelism and why has it been so prevalent?
The coming Anarchy?
- An article that was published and very popular
Growing numbers of people in poverty even as growth increases…
Flattening age pyramids and rising rates of unemployment and unemployed youth…
- Much of the population is under 25; strain in economy to produce jobs
Deteriorating social and environmental conditions in many areas of the Global South…
Rising power of the transnational informal economy evading state controls…
Emergence of failed states in some parts of the Global South….
Measures Used by the FSI ( failed state index)
- What is looked at to determine if a state has failed overall
a) Social = demographic pressures, refugee flows, presence of vengeance seeking groups, internal
displacement
b) Economic = uneven economic development, sharp economic decline
c) Political = delegitimization/criminalization of the state, deterioration of public services, arbitrary
application of rule of law, rising power of private security provision, factionalization of elite
political class, increasing penetration of external actors…
What is an ‘ideal type state?’
The modern state as a relatively new phenomenon in global affairs
States also vary quite significantly throughout the world they all have distinct histories…
Emerged in modern Europe as a result of a long, drawn-out, violently competitive process…
State formation in Europe
Europe initially typified by high degrees of social and political fragmentation…
Political units competed violently with each other…
Winners began to accumulate power, resources, and territory which created a demand for
more…
Eventually, these growing political entities needed to regularize the manner in which they ruled
over their populations moving from the predatory extraction of resources to taxation by
consent
This is why Charles Tilly argues that, historically “war made the state”!!!
- Modern states are created by violent wars
- Africa had more states before (smaller) than present days
- Africans had no say in how states were changed. Europe changed it. State formation was
probably caused by violent ways before.
What is the ideal type state?
States as being distinct from regimes, and governments…
States as having a monopoly over the use of violence
States as having control over a defined territory and people…
States as having a centralized set of ‘rule-bound’ institutions (extraction, regulation, distribution,
enforcement)…
States as being widely accepted/legitimate (Weber and the ‘rational-legal’ order)…
States as sovereign….
- Control whats going in borders, independent from other states,
State regimes and governments
1. States basic institutions of a political system; indicates the ‘raw power’ or the ‘infrastructural
power’ of the state; a state’s ‘hardware’…
2. Regimes indicates how this ‘raw power’ is organized around a set of fundamental rules; those
rules found are ideally formal found within constitutions and bills of rights; the ‘software’ of
the state…
3. Governments indicates how power is used..
- Canada’s basic institutions are: judiciary and beaucracy; Canadian has a democratic,
constitutional monarchy; and a parliamentary democracy ( our regime) the rules are found in
charter of rights and freedom, constitution, rules passed from the parliament; elected officials
are our government, organized by political parties
States vary tremendously in form and capacity
Different origins (organic/imposed)….
Different regimes (authoritarian/democratic)…
Different ways of distributing power (centralized/decentralized)…
Different forms and degrees of legitimacy (rational-legal/charismatic/nationalist)…
Different degrees of autonomy how separate is the state from society as a whole…
Different capacities levels of centralized ‘infrastructural power’…
Features of weak states in global south
1. States as central to questions of power.
2. Sovereign states as “fictions” (weak states, quasi-states, collapsed states)…
3. States as “overdeveloped”…
4. States as having “blurred” rules and lines of authority…
5. States as being “captured” by particular groups – with weak institutionalzied links to society…
6. States as paradoxically ‘strong’ and weak’…
States as central question of power
How central is the state to our lives in Canada?
Does politics attract the best people?
In which sector do you think the best jobs are?
State as central..
Power often leads to wealth, not visa versa…
Great social dependence on access to state resources