POLC99H3 Lecture Notes - Lecture 8: Zapatista Army Of National Liberation, Land Bank Of The Philippines
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POLC99 LECTURE 8
I. THE LAND QUESTION
•The complex issues regarding access to land, agricultural productivity, cultural
reproduction and rural poverty.
•3 paths to Reform
1. State-led Land Reform (Classic, 1960s)
oSemi-feudal society, semi-pre-capitalist relationship
oAmazonian regions, give those land to the landless peasants
Expropriation with compensation
justified through legislation – all land must serve social function,
must be above certain ceiling of land is eligible for expropriation)
Highly centralized and bureaucratic
determining what is eligible for expropriating)
Low credit and investment
Accompanied by agricultural credit. Help landless peasants to
farm, market to sell goods.
o“Ugly Stories from the Peruvian Agrarian Reform” Enrique Mayor
2. Market-led Agrarian Reform (MCAR)
oFacilitates the sale of lands, formal titles given to land – part of the market.
oFormer communal land had collective land titles and divided up into
individual land titles.
Willing sellers, willing buyers
3:1 (land supply vs. demand)
Not enough accessible land, it wouldn’t work
Rural poor are unable to purchase land.
Land bank (loans to the rural poor)
Pre-select the eligible, only wealthier peasants receive it first
3. Land reform from below (informal politics)
oChallenged by peasant movements, calling for state to come back into the
land reform process.
oTrying to get more help from small-scale farmers
oState must be challenged by seizing/occupying the land. Forcing
government to implement its own legislation.
Easier to seize government land compared to private land
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