POLC99H3 Lecture Notes - Che Guevara, Daniel Ortega, United States Occupation Of Nicaragua

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4 Apr 2011
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POLC99 Lecture 3 January 18
Revolutionary Struggles I: Cuba & Nicaragua
Political Revolution: seeks to transform the state, but not economic or social
strives (e.g. wars of independence.
First Generation Revolutions
Characterized by the tensions surrounding the transition from feudalism from
capitalism + by class struggle. Examples: French Revolution (1789), Chinese (1911),
Russian (1917), Mexican (1910).
Social Revolutionary Roles: Insurrection > Political Victory > Societal
Transformation
Theoretical Models
Class Conflict (Marxist): views revolution as movements driven by inherent class-
based conflict in society.
Features:
-Urban workers are the revolutionary class
-Exploitative nature of capitalism gives rise to political violence.
Political Conflict: (Charles Tilly, 1978) Views revolutions as the struggle for political
power between those who are excluded from the polity (challengers) + those who are
in power (members).
Features:
-Gradual mobilization of challengers
-A rapid increase in numbers of supporters.
-Government unable to completely suppress the challengers
-Establishment of control over part of the government apparatus
-A struggle to maintain or expand that control by challengers
-Victory o defeat of challengers
-Reimposition of government control
Structural Model: (Theda Skocpol, 1979). Views revolution as the result of the
weakening or collapse of state structures as a result of international and domestic
pressures.
Features:
1
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Document Summary

Political revolution : seeks to transform the state, but not economic or social strives (e. g. wars of independence. Characterized by the tensions surrounding the transition from feudalism from capitalism + by class struggle. Social revolutionary roles: insurrection > political victory > societal. Class conflict (marxist) : views revolution as movements driven by inherent class- based conflict in society. Exploitative nature of capitalism gives rise to political violence. Political conflict : (charles tilly, 1978) views revolutions as the struggle for political power between those who are excluded from the polity (challengers) + those who are in power (members). Establishment of control over part of the government apparatus. A struggle to maintain or expand that control by challengers. Views revolution as the result of the weakening or collapse of state structures as a result of international and domestic pressures. Agrarian structure is required for a revolution to succeed, small land-holding peasants.

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