POLD89H3 Lecture Notes - Lecture 2: Power Transition Theory, Global Governance, Global Commons

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6 Feb 2013
School
Course
Week 2. Globalization is…(Changing World?)
Global Governance
- Implies all kinds of actors might contribute to transnational and international orders, establishing forms
of governance, even in absence of an effective world government
- Offers a new theoretical lens through which to view international relations, it highlights the role of
diverse social actors as well as states in securing patterns of rule at the transitional and global levels
- Defined in terms of any activity that contributes to transnational and international patterns of rule,
includes not only the actions of states and international institutions, but also the actions of non-
governmental organizations
- Seeks not only to prevent and limit war but also to manage the global commons, to promote development,
and to regulate global financial markets
- Globalization consists in the rise of transnational flows and transnational problems
- Privatized governance includes business groups, NGOs, and arguably organized crime
- Shifts in global governance reflect the turn to networks, joining-up, and public-private partnership
- Global governance now includes numerous such attempts to coordinate diverse actors within markets
and networks
The Struggle for Primacy in a Global Society
- Power Transition Theory: stresses that the distribution-of-power changes in countries will rise and fall
- Hegemons: leading country in an international system
- Multipolar: international system that includes several hegemons, dominant states, or great powers
- Bipolar: international system that includes two hegemons, dominant states, or great powers
- Unipolar: international system that has only one hegemon, dominant state, or great power
- Power: ability to get others individuals, groups, or nations to behave in ways they ordinarily wouldn’t
- GNP: measures total market value of all goods and services produced by resources supplied by residents
and businesses of a particular country, regardless of where residents and businesses are located
- GDP: measures total market value of all goods and services produced within a country
- Power Conversion: capacity to change potential power, measured by available resources, into realized
power, which is determined by the changed behavior of others
- Structural Leadership: possession of economic resources, military power, technology, and other
sources of power that enable a small group of countries to shape international system
- Institutional Leadership: ability to determine rules, principles, procedures, and practices that guide
the behavior of members of the global community
- Situational Leadership: ability to seize opportunities to build or reorient the global system, apart from
the distribution of power and the building of institutions
- Population Pressures: pressure on resources that leads countries to expand beyond their boundaries
- Uneven Economic Growth: factor that enables some countries to enhance their power while that of
other countries declines
- Hubris: term used to stress dangers of excessive pride and arrogance
- Lippmann Gap: disparity between global ambitions of countries and their resources to fulfill those
ambitions
- Imperial Overstretch: disparity between global ambitions of countries and their resources to fulfill
those ambitions
- Containment: strategy that attempts to prevent ambitious powers from expanding and destroying
order and balance in the international system
- Binding: attempts to control rising states by embedding them in alliances
- Engagement: efforts to minimize conflict with challengers
- Public Goods: collective benefits such as security, stability, open markets, and economic opportunities
- Asymmetrical Warfare: strategy of counteracting the dominant power of a hegemon through
unorthodox ways
- Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC): group of oil-exporting states that
collaborate to elevate their export power
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