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Lecture 10

POLB52 Lecture 10.docx

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Political Science
Christopher Cochrane

st POLB52 – Lecture 10 – March 21 , 2013. Countries have different political systems but you’ll notice certain general movements. Try to take theories to understand Canadian politics. Elections and Electoral Systems Plurality Characteristics  Majority means 50% plus 1 vote is the majority.  Plurality – More than everybody else.  There’s no direct translation to vote to power in Canada. There are certain tendencies and properties of plurality system o Single member plurality tendency is to reward the first place party – to provide higher seat of House of Commons than votes. Single member plurality gives majority party/ majority seats. o Its tendency is to reward political party’s regionally concentrated support and punish parties that have votes spread evenly in Canada – lower shares of seats in the House of Commons.  We can think of this of political strategies – parties are incentives to appeal to 1 narrow regional part of Canada.  If you look at differences of regional votes– comparative small. Seats with perfectly regional divide.  Canada is not really divided regionally. It’s not the people, and not the culture. It’s usually the rules of the votes that create regional divides.  Responsible government – they have the power to get it down and they’re accountable for what they do. Last semester POLB50:  Democracy – representation – how representative is the government, does the government include minorities, women, conservatives, etc.  Other side of democracy side is accountability – if you don’t have this, then what ever government you select have little incentive to respond to Canada as a whole. Representative and accountability can conflict.   Plurality – maximizes accountability  Proportional system – minority government guarantee, parties have to agree after the election to make a coalition. Voting Behaviour  Yung people are less likely to vote there’s a lot going on, they don’t have the knowledge,  There are differences between not knowing about politics and caring about it AND not knowing about politics and not caring about it  Why do young people not care about politics? We might lose sight of the importance of the struggle of the vote- taken for granted, less mature, free riders, etc.  Focus on young people rather than things not from young people  A common mistake – young people don’t vote for political parties and are not engaged politics system doesn’t accurately see their views.  Some people would say youth don’t vote – electoral system distort their vote and if we have a PR than it would work.  Disengagement doesn’t make sense  Voting behaviour reflects to uncertainty of party loyalty.  Issue of duty and towards choice – Is it a life cycle effect or a generational effect on why young people don’t vote?  We don’t have answers to them.  It could be politics is more boring today. Maybe political parties are not attracting people as much today. They’re doing less of a job. New immigrants are less likely to vote today too.  People could say there’s not really that much differences between liberal and conservatives. Turnout  Graph which shows across time the % of people voting through time versus the eligible people who can vote. Eligible voter who actually voted and eligible voters who didn’t vote. There’s increase in voting through time. Voting turnout (red line) – it decline somewhat. They are more likely to vote now because the Canadian population is getting older. We have an aging population which means more people are able to vote. Why Turnout is is so Low  Age – younger people are able to vote. If you want to change this, put the age is much higher  Education – people with stronger education are much more likely to vote.  Income and class – There is a social mobility, there a fundamental class differences – no opportunities, lower education, child care responsibility, low wages, insecure employment, there are people like in Canadian society. They really do reflective in income.  If you’re a political party that appeal to poor people and young people, you’re more likely to lose.  Poor people don’t vote : o Political correct: They have so many thi
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