POLB80 – Lecture 3 – September 25 2012-09-25
Cold War History and Post-Cold War
- USSR and US did not fight because of deterrence (MAD)
- Deterrence – to threaten retaliation
- They deter each other. If you attack me, I will attack you.
- If one of them attacks, that one that attacks will get destroyed
- Both side needs self-preservation and are rational
This made Missile defence
- Both side has to be neutral vulnerable
- 1948 – Berlin Blockade
- 1962 – scariest part of cold war
Missile Crisis, Cuban crisis
US made a naval blockade in response
- Proxy vs. Proxy – alley of US and Alley of USSR fighting
- Proxy vs. Superpower
- 1989 – Wall of Berlin is irrelevant
East Germany communist
East Germany went through Western Germany side
East Germany was having an election
End of the cold War
- End of Cold War
- Soviet Union ended its existence 2 years after the cold war started
- End of cold war has multiple events
Opening of the Berlin wall
Soviet agreed to the destruction of the Berlin Wall
- Soviet Union was an empire
- Earlier USSR crushed Western democracy in Eastern Europe and they crushed them by
telling Eastern Europe to stay in the Soviet Block
- Opening of the Berlin Wall makes Germany one step away from the Soviet Block
Why did the Soviet agree to destroy the Wall?
1986 – Molotov became leader of the Soviet Union. He started to change the
relationship between the US and the Soviet Union. It change the dynamic of the
- The cold war was built on mistrust and enemies - US aggression and military spending also contributed to the tension on the USSR but
they were spending too much
- USSR was having an economic crisis at this time and so they could not keep up with the
- There was some human rights movements changes in the USSR and made them a little
bit nearer to democracy
- US did not take their advantage of USSR economic crisis to make any violent actions.
Instead, they help encourage the USSR to make the changes
- US won the cold war
- Impact of Cold War Today
Canada involved in Afghanistan
Rebuilding Afghanistan from 2001
- 1979 – USSR invades Afghanistan
- There was a change in the type of conflict after the cold war
There was a shut down in interchange, inter-state conflict (fighting over land)
New conflict – terrorism, economic sanctions, civil war, ethnic conflict
This trace back into the cold war
Right now, the world is heavily armed
- After WWII, people decided that WWI should not happen again. What they did is they
made a Security Council that allowed it to enforce laws and bind resolutions
This produce nothing about conflict for about 40 years
US was largely finding the Security Council
Each Security Council had veto
Each side had to protect its own interest. Therefore, countries in the Council
kept on using their veto power.
At one time did the Security Council worked – The war in Korea, when North
Korea attacked South Korea. At the time of the decisions, USSR did not attend
the Security Council’s meeting. Also, at this time, Taiwan was in the Council
instead of China. China wasn’t recognized yet.
This increased prominence in the United Nations
- After cold war, US was more troubled by getting what it wants
- After cold war, there was huge expansions in International relations (globalization,
human rights, the environment)
Realism - Realism doesn’t mean realistic theory. It is a set of ideas of how world politics works
- Every International theory has a particular answer in the questions on the side
Who are the actors?
What are they like? What their interests?
What to expect from them?
- Realism came back to the early ages of the Greeks. Realism is still popular and more
prominent in international relations.
- Who are the important actors in the realism world? The state
- States – They are the sovereign actors. They are a monopoly.
- Is our state the most important in our country?
- States are self-interest, power seeking and scared. They pursue their interest defined by
Security conscious – This leads them to seek power
- Why? – It is because of external reasons (They are compe