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Lecture 4

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Political Science
Sheldon Ungar

nd Lecture 4 – October 2 2012-10-02 - The type of state matters  Democratic Peace Theory – democracies do not fight each other but fight non- democratic nations  This is strange for realism because they say it does not matter what state you are. The world is still living in an anarchy system.  Realist say that democratic nations have not fought each other yet  Different domestic system means different state system - Collective System - 1935 – Started talking about collective system in the League of Nations - Collective System failed for League of Nations and Nazi’s arise - Anarchy = security dilemma  You cannot get out of this equation  Liberals say you can get out of it through international organizations (collective security – any active aggression will cause the whole entire international society to react)  States worry about security because they feel uncertain and the feel scared  Ex. If everyone aids state A, state A won’t be afraid of state B.  The aggressor must be stopped always and should be easy to identify the aggressor  Aggressor must be wrong  Aggressor must know the international society will go against them - Obstacles of collective system:  If the powerful states are the aggressors  Identifying the aggressor. Who is right?  Political commitment. You cannot have everyone on board this collective system  Structural problems - Collective system is a theoretical way to get out of security dilemma - Is NATO a collective Security Organization?  NATO is a Collective Defense (Alliance). It is a group of state that protect each other from harm This does not take away security dilemma but instead live within the dilemma  NATO has about 15 countries – If anyone of them gets attack, NATO countries will help the one that got attacked. If a country is not in NATO, NATO will not help  Alliance protect yourself in a security dilemma - Realism – cooperation is a common and it’s rare. Competition is more and cooperation goes away. - International Organizations help cooperation (liberal). Multiple interactions will help cooperation - Realism – absolute gains can help cooperations - Constructivism – This approach didn’t exist 25 years ago in IR. - There are expectation on how we interact with each other - Individual ideas who think about what is appropriate st  These rules are constructed over time (1 core)  Notion of a social fact – Things exist because they exist through a collection of collective idea. (We all believe it exist)  Ex. Canada exists because we act as if it does exist. We follow it, elections, etc. Other states act as if it exists too. - Full of social facts of identity culture, that shape what world politics look like - Constructivism is a social theory. We apply it to IR theories. - World is socially constructed - Important
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