War Notes.docx

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Political Science
Francis Wiafe- Amoako

LECTURE AFTER MIDTERM : Hegemonic war: • It is a war over control oif the entire world order influding the change to the rules of the international system and the role of the world hegemon • Also known as world war, global war, general war, systemic war\ • EG WW! WW2 • Will we see hegemonic wars in the future? o Highly unlikely o The Us has established institutions so that the insititutions will take over o It is in the benefit hegemony to establish insitutions even though the institutions can’t take over/ they are all influenced by the STATEs Total war: - This is a war waged to conquer and occupy another state. - The goal is to force the surrender of the existing government and be replaced by another chosen by the victor - The entire society is moblilzed for the struggle as well as target war - Rg. Is the 2003 iraq war, 2001 Afganistan war and WW2 Limited War: - These are military actions that is short of the surrender and occupation of the enemy;s territory - This included raids and other incursions - Eg. Are Us military action in 1991 to free Kuwait from Iraqi occupation and 1981 isreali boming suspected nuclear facilities in Iraq ; Russia in Georgia in 2008 Civil War: • It is a war between organized groups within a single state • They could be war of secession eg. The Ethiopia / Eritrea war 1980s • Also to change government policy or change government eg Liberian civil war • Many but no all cibil wars emerge from differences between ethnicities Guerrilla War: • An unconventional war in which a small group of combatants use mobile tatctics to combat a regular army • Ambush and raids are common tatics • May live within the population in remote and inaccessible parts of the country • Eg. Are the case in Columbia and also during the Vietnam war • The purpose is to harass and punish the government to limit its effectiveness • Eg. Tamil Tigers in Sri Lanka • It is an effective war…what the fighters tell us / sends a message that the government is of no use…it can demoralize a government (IE>BOKOharm in Nigeria….terrorists/ the Nigerians are getting really mad because the government isn’t doing much/ Causes of War: • Levels at which wars can occur • Individual level, domestic level, interstate level, global level • One person can change the world Individual level (issues of rationality) • War occurs as a result of rational decision making of state leaders • War begin with conscious and reasoned decisions based on the calculations made by both parties • This reflects the realist view that war could become an instrument of power • The occurrence of war and violence are normal and are means of obtaining leverage over other states in the international system Domestic level: - This emphasis state and societal characteristics that make states wither more prone to war or less prone to war - During the cold war US accused the communist soviet union as being expansionist, ideological and totalitarian while the soviet union also accused the capitalist Us as being imperialistic - Some argue that domestic political factors shape a states outlook on war and peace - Proponents of democratic peace argue that democracies are peaceful and do not fight each other. Interstate Level: - Theses theories argue that relative power of states within the international system is the amin cause of war (neorealist view) - Power transition theorists argue that war occur when an emerfing power is overtaking an existing power or a hegemon. - Also governmental structures, trade, international organizations all affect the onset of war - Opportunity: you have the ability/ opportunity could be contiguity Global level: • Cycle theories which argue that conflict occurs in cycles some 50 or 100 years intevals • Thus they decay and creation of world orders occur within certain periods • These are general tendencies towards war in the international system Conflict of Ideas: • These are conflict types that have its sources in nationalism, ethnicity, religion and ideology • These are not mutally exclusive and may overlap Nationalism: - A nation is apopulation that share common identity such as language or
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