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POLB90 - Lecture 2.docx

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Political Science
R Rice

Colonialism and Neocolonialism Colonialism - the political control of peoples and territories by foreign states, sometimes accompanied by permanent settlement Goal (summed up by Cecil Rhodes (1890's) - "we must find new lands from which we can easily obtain natural resources, cheap labour, dumping ground for good produced by our companies - new markets" Motives for colonialism (3 G's) Economic - colonies were seen as a business and the aim of the colonizers was to produce a profit (GOLD motive) Religious and culture - the desire to spread the Christian faith was part of the colonizing drive (GOD motive) Prestige - colonies stood as symbols of greatness for a mother country (GLORY motive) Side motives: Strategic - some colonies were used to protect the mother country's investments and borders Surplus population - other colonies served as outlets for a mother country's surplus and undesirable population Legacies Poverty and underdevelopment - due to the loss of natural resources and the creation of economic dependency  Became mono-export economies (colonies assigned certain export for production) o Export raw materials and buy back costly manufactures Loss of language and culture - due to introduction of western education and the Christian religion Everything indigenous and local is inferior to the colony's - changing the mentality of the people that they are not  good enough Death and displacement - due to slave trade and at the hands of the European weapons and diseases  Slave market shifting people around the world Inequality - due to unequal access to land and employment as a result of racism and discrimination Macro/mini land arrangement - large tracks of macro lands for the colonizers and peasants worked on the estates   Ruling elite were differentiated by race and class (darker skin = lower class) Conflicts - due to artificial drawing of state boundaries Third world nationalism and violence rose as a response to colonialism - left some countries in ruins after independence wars/movements The Shift - traditional colonialism > neocolonialism Independence to In Dependence Transfer of power itself - left at a disadvantage (little preparation for independence, even when done peacefully , mother countries cut off aid to the republic, thriving trade cut short, left with difficulties)  Destroy already placed infrastructures Political - left internal divisions; zero sum politics: common enemy gone so division under the surface came into the surface  no channels to absorb all the unrest  Can only win by someone else loosing - one groups power came at expense of others Economically - over reliance on raw material exports is hard to break out of, still producing certain products only Irony of post colonial period is that it reproduced and reinforced the colonization Is development any different? Development is the continuation of colonialism Thesis suggests a striking continuity between the colonial era and the era of development e.g. no attempt to redraw boundaries/national borders, no attempt to restore pre-colonial cultural patterns, and no attempt to restore pre-colonial land
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