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Political Science
Matthew Hoffmann

Lecture 2 POLB90 Tuesday, September 10, 2013 Other meanings of globalization? • Impacts of distribution of economic and political power. • Globalization of Media, culture, political institutions, financial institutions • Globalization (economic): the elimination of economic borders and the increase in international exchange (trade, investment) • Human rights What changes have occurred? 1. The breakup of the Soviet Block and the Demise of Communism i. These economies are not centrally assent, elections exist. 2. The emergence of trading blocks i. N.Afree trade agreement, EU. Emerged throughout the world 3. Mid 1970s: Decline of U.S. Economic Power i. Rise of Germany and Japan. (Japan has been for the last 10 years) Competitions between industrialized nations. 4. New technology i. Development of technology in such a way you can produce good in a variety of geography. Company would use to manufacture items in one country, now different steps are done in different countries, taking advantage of cheap labour. 5. Rise of the BRICs i. Brazil, Russia, India, China, and SouthAfrica. Dynamism of the country (does not apply to S.Africa) Economies are big and have impact on things, and have formal meetings which started in 2009. The MainActors • Multinational Corporations: more powerful that many Global South Governments o Make demands to industrialized countries, Private Banks are also enormous actors. • Governments of Global North countries (U.S.) o Also other European governments and even in Canada and have been interested in market integration. Government of G.S have been enthusiastic about market integration and market liberalization, adopted and formed ideas. • Multilateral Lending Institutions o World Bank o International Monetary Fund  Give loans in condition to carrying out certain policy. Some overlap between the two.  Politics of where the idea came from and the way they insert themselves into Global North countries.  Aprocess that was driven by power of ideas. • World Trade Organization o In charge of trade and investment rules on a global scale. Subject to heavy lobbying, subject to the demand and power of developed countries. Heavily lobbied by multinational corporations. • Governments and Blocks of Global South Countries (e.g. BRICS, Group of 77,ALBA) o Not all gone to market reform, many resisted. • Civil Society, trade union organizations o Economic globalization, didn’t take long to figure out a lot of the policy changes in the 80s/90s/2000s, many changes were coming from outside the country. Civil society Lecture 2 POLB90 Tuesday, September 10, 2013 organizations don’t’have partners in developing countries. Not international organizations, then organizations with close international ties. o Cheap labour, lower environmental standards, companies will close down and move south. Tension between interest of workers of the Global North and South. Many cross border trade alliances. o Resistant to the kind of strategies that government is pushed by multilateral corporations. Division within the Global South • Success ofAsian NICs (South Korea, Taiwan, Singapore, Hong Kong) o Improve living standards, done with low inequality. Success for entering the developed world. IMF noticed and came to the conclusion that the success was because the state not involved. • Less successful, second string NICs (Indonesia, Malaysia o [Brazil and Mexico] o Brazil was quite successful, but Mexico has slow economic growth and high poverty rate, one disaster after another. [By early 90s, all market reform. Mexico was going to join NAFTA, which none happened] • China and India [the Great success stories of market reform?] o High economic growth rate and poverty reduction o Success was the Use of market liberalization o Questionable argument o Done many things that Global South were told not to do • The “Fourth” World o UN Classification o Most Sub SaharanAfrican countries (also include Haiti)  Lowest gross income per capita, worst figure in literacy  Constant upheaval and civil war, high degree of physical insecurity • Oil Producers o The country would receive lots of revenue and be able to invest. Actual fact: opposite happens. (Norway, Mexico, Nigeria, Middle East) o Large countries, increase in corruption neglect of agriculture and manufacture. o It’s possible that a strong state to manage mineral well, stabilization fund in Norway and does not allow to do the things that happened in other countries. Meanings of “Development”: from Growth in Income, to Sustainable Development, to the Human Development Index. • Heavily Contested • GNP (Gross National Product) per capita: the total value of all the goods and services produced by a country in a year, in US dollars, including income from abroad, divided by the population. o Very acceptable, rich countries with high GNP. This concept became roundly criticized by people; some felt GN
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