Tuesday, November 26, 2013
Export Processing Zone (Concluded) and Review
What can be done?
- International labour standards
o International Labour Organization has been pushing for a long time, and nothing has happened.
o Many activist believe would solve the labour issues in EPZs
o Powerful actors: MNC
o Monitor their compliance. Some MNC do it to, some don’t. Some claim to do it don’t enforce if
they don’t incline to do so.
o Political pressure.
o Labour organizing with international support
o Consumer boycott
Must be wide spread in order for it to be effective.
- Need a fundamental change in development thinking
o Human development and improvement of social condition were not seen as economic
o State needs to have minimal role.
o Propel growth and redistribution has been taken away from GS countries
MAJOR THEMES FROM LAST 5 WEEKS
Expansion of Europe and Colonial Rule
- Essential element of understanding modern politics in economic and social aspects in GS countries.
- Europe expanded, conquered and colonized most countries of the GS
- Encountered complex societies
o Not primitive undifferential societies. Mostly complex societies
- The impact was profound
o Americas, reordering the political economic social order. Reduction of the indigenous population
o Post-Spanish Portuguese conquest, new societies with high inter-racial mingling that was closely
linked to politics and social link.
o Slave trade devastated Africa, involved the transportation of slave to the Caribbean.
- General features:
o Production to satisfy European needs
o Profound cultural impact
European superiority and right to rule.
o Creation of strata of collaborators
Strata of indigenous people who benefitted from colonial rule and were willing to go
along with it.
- Franz Fanon
o Observed the psychological impact of colonial rule.
o Aware of the fact that colonial rule had had harmful consequences in terms of the thinking of the
o Especially true of the elites (educated in the west, leading struggles for independence) within
colonial society POLB90
Tuesday, November 26, 2013
o Solution: violent revolutionary struggle
o Elites that came to power and think in western ways and remain allies with western countries
Political independence: Control from the Outside /continues (Neo-colonialism)
- The MainActors
o The IMF
o The World Bank
mid 1980s, initiated SAPS
recognized that stabilization wasn’t working needed more profound changes
o The commercial banks – informal conditionality
Pressured countries to lend, when debt crisis hit, commercial banks demanded payments.
Made the countries look bad, and some countries went under.
Informal conditionality: establishment of committees with representatives discuss
government policies and make points about what needed to be done.
o Domestic Technocrats
People in GS countries, educated in the West, with degree in economics. Had positions in
institutions such as IMF and WB. Went back home and when debt crisis occurred, they
were the one that led the negotiation. Became internal advocated for the country. Had
close links to the multilateral institutions.