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POLB92 Tutoriall

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Political Science
Lucan Way

POLB92 Revolutions Democracy and Authoritarianism in Modern EuropeTutorial 1917 Revolution in Russia Why did the Russian revolution emergestructuralvoluntarist Russian Revolutionfirst social revolution it was very surprising for many observers It was surprising for Marx and Marxist because within boundaries there shouldnt be a socialist revolution in Russia but there was Before the revolution Russia was a feudal society it was a great power mostly among military grounds it was quite late for them to break away from Feudalism The peasants only escaped their bonds in 1816 which was considered quite late also Russia was late in industrial revolution and also the government took actions to further industrial revolution tiny developmentsocial composition of the Russiansthe way of life in the villages in Russia Feudalism ended in 1816 the peasants still did not own their own land Miraka village councilland was distributed among peasant households and they were worked on collectively Even though feudalism ended the peasants still owed large amounts ofto the government and the wealthy Fusion between the village and the citizens not strict boundaries between peasants and working class Workers were still kind of peasants and sought food for their villages urban and rural society fusionsRussian intellectualssource of revolutionary action highly educated people who were alienated from the rest of societyauthoritarianism bc they were revolting against them Populists versus Marxists Populists believe that capitalism destroyed the whole social fabric thought that Russia should not get industrialized but that they should keep the traditional way of life They left the cities in 187374 called going to the people they went to the villages and settled down and aimed to get them to be on their side This would prevent them from a capitalist society However the villagers did not like the populists Marxists during 1880s following ideas of Marx we need capitalism in Russia after that we would have a proletariat society where the working class would be the start of a socialist revolution They could ndmanage a social democratic party in 1898 but in the 2 congress the party split into 2 Bolsheviks versus Mensheviksboth were Marxists but Bolsheviks were led by Lenin he made a very good contribution to Marxism like the idea of a 1 guy partyVanpuard party he believed that the working class were left alone they cannot achieve a socialist revolution He argued that we need a very disciplined party to initiate a socialist revolution Mensheviks said that a party is also a necessity but they said that this party should be a mess party which should be less centralized and less disciplined For Mensheviks Trotsku was their leader He believed that a socialist revolution is important but what is more important is a permanent revolution how did the revolution emerge In 1914 First World War emerged Russia was on the side with France against Germany This led to Russia loosing so much The war mobilized the people and we had the first revolution February 1917 A kind of dual power emerged 1 Provisional Governmentemerging bourgeoisie elites 2 Soviets together to represent the Russian Population however this proved to be an illusion bc it didnt work InfluentialLenins April Theses He said that Russia can jump to the second stage of revolutionLand peace and breadThey became the most powerful group Bolsheviks Soviets are the working class but specifically they were the councils the workers councils in each factorynumerous different groups Octobers RevolutionBolsheviks seized the powers in Russia DEBATE
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