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Lecture 2

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Political Science
Renan Levine

LECTURE 2- Jan 16 Hypotheses • Exogeneous-outside of what we are trying to explain(don’t need to knw this tem) • Hypotheses- shuld clearly identify what youre trying to explain i.e. dep variable, state affirmatively, avoid double negatives • Good hypotheses clearly state how one concept is related to another and the causal affect clearly identifies what causes what 1 hypotheses- trying to explain unemployment rates in country, and they are using literacy rates to explain it- literacy rate-ind variable 2 hypotheses-trying to explain individual political knowledge and using level of religiousity These variables vary; they aren’t constant Ind variables could be in the category of something we would never try to explain What is an ind variable depends on political scientists choice Older catholics-------oppositions- dep var- oppose abortion, ind – age, regular church attendance(whether or not you show to church regularly), religion(catholics) so 3 ind variables here Tautological- relationships that are true by definition; often a set of assumptions is that one variable can not perfectly affect another variable Existing theory eg homosexuality article for the weak that you cant be homosexual bcz it will affect performance -Hypothesis testing We can never prove our hypotheses For every hypotheses, there is a null hypotheses -Null hypothesis If hypotheses says there is a positive relationship then the null hypothesis says that there is no relationship. -What is the null? I 1-Canadians with higher levels of education are more likely to support increasing taxes on cigarettes then Canadians with lower levels of education. Null- Canadians with higher education are no more (or less) likely to support increasing taxes on cigarettes. Or No relationships b.w higher levels of education and support of increasing taxes on cigarettes. 2-Countries with high literacy rates have the lowest unemployment rates. Null-countries with high literacy rates have unemployment rates that are no different then those with l
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