Lecture 3 jan 23, 2014
How to evaluate strength of an argument?
1- truthfulness of premise
2- logical strength
-olaf is trying to impress someone who he just met
WHAT? WHO? WHEN? Of bullshit
What is bullshit? Eg I am PM of Canada if said in class would be bullshit bcz classmates would
knw its not true but if u go to another country and say, I am a govt official of Canada than that
would be bullshit. So bullshitting depends on the context
Something that might not be true and u dunt knw if its true or not; do it for bluffing
WHAT?Exaggerations; clichés; aprioriz probably true; emotional/response preceding reason; no
proof of truth; conflict b/w personal reality and actual reality
Frankfurt says his bullshit text depends very much on the context so who says it and when says
Eg America is the greatest nation – the speaker uses it to make the ppl think as a patriot so
Frankfurt says it about the intention, eg if a student plagiarizes they would give a reason for why
For Frankfurt, bullshit is Empty speech without distinction; hot air is bullshit or bullshit that is not
hot air. hot air-no substance in someone’s speech
For Frankfurt, context matters; its not just just empty substance; the bullshitter has to be making
some claim to be knowing abt the situation or substance. You have to convince people that you
do knw what ur saying is what Frankfurt says.
Lying Frankfurt says is diff frm bullshit bcz wid lying u knw what the truth is.
WHEN? Insincere apologies, excuses, political(interpersonal) goal
Frankfurt writes that bullshitters intention is not to lie or bullshit but hiding the fact that I am
neither lying nor saying the truth;
IDENTIFYING(AND GETTING THROUGH) LIES, BS AND KNOWLEDGE
Testing an argument’s worthiness
1) truthfulness of premise - are the premises true?maybe some are and some aren’t so wht do we do then?