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Lecture 11

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Department
Political Science
Course
POLC91H3
Professor
Judith Teichman
Semester
Fall

Description
POLC91 November 29, 2012 Lecture 11 Latin Americas Pink Tide Populism and Caudillo Authority -often found together but are not the same -interaction between -populism – might have a faction of the military, or business support, or from workers -they are coalitions of heterogeneous groups -come together and have certain objectives in mind - tend to be opposed to the elites (white oligarchy) and opposed to foreign interests (foreign interests and white oligarchy are often lumped together with same interests) -are concerned with freedoms from, and less concerned or may interfere with the niceties of lib demo -concerned about masses of population -there are auth features to many of these regimes -pressure from below is managed by leadership of populous movement/gov’t -most are led by charismatic political leaders – notion of caudillo authority -caudillo auth goes back to 19C – it is leadership based on personal qualities of decisiveness and strong leadership, physical prowess and providing strong leadership -often involves an exchange of personal rewards for support -caudillo authority can exist without populism – -caudillo auth can exist on political left or right, can be demo or totally authoritarian -eg. Pinochet of Chile – authoritarian rule, friends with technocrats that were loyal to him, he dismantled the state, market reform -he was a cuadillo leader but the whole political context did not have features of populism -another eg. In Mexico – -populism can exist without caudillo authority or with weak caudillo authority Latin American regimes on the left came to power in a particular context --the failure of neoliberalism -failed much worse in some countries than in others, but did not improve poverty/inequality and contributed to the worsening of it --the commodity boom; countries producing minerals has been increasing on the int’l market, means that there is more revenue available -has increased leftist leaders spending, and contributed to the decline of poverty and re election of leftist leaders in 2009-2012 -Chile, brazil and Uruguay respet freedoms to but are more concerned with freedoms from – handout -they are leftist -chavez - anti neo-lib – populist characteristics 1 -these are the 2 extremes and the others are in the middle Chavez – Venezuela -is the most left of the left leaders who have came to power recently -1989 – Venezuelan gov’t embarks on reform neo-lib –rising poverty inequality -96- adopts another structural adj – worsens poverty -on top of all of this prices for petroleum go down on int’l market -they were undergoing structural adjustment, and foreign exchange earnings are going down -in 1998- chavez comes to power -there has been movement since chavez came to power (handout) – movement to greater radicalism and away from autonomous political support base -development of the regime is in 3 periods -98-2002- -new constitution in 1999 – first of a series of attempts to change institutional arrangements – -constitutions emphasized freedoms from and states role in pushing forward greater achievement in this area, maintained elections, but added on to that the notion of having referendums..justified on the grounds that for last several decades country had been controlled by oligarchy and …. His objective was to break down that control and his way to deal with this was a referendum -what he was doing frightened a lot of ppl, there was mobilization and opposition to what he was doing – middle class saw an impingement on property rights -02-06 -attempted coup against chavez – -one of the consequences was that after 02 there was another stage in his movement towards what some say are greater infringement on political rights of lib demo -interferes with media, … but expands literacy programs and care In poor neighborhoods -in 2006 runs for re election and gets 63% of popular vote -this makes him bolder in his wish to re structure Venezuela politically -2006 – attempted to make more reforms… -2007 est enabling act – this gave him 18 months where he didn’t have to take anything to congress and could just pass it by presidential decree by himself, that was passed and came into effect – quite an authoritarian act, but was done against rising mobilization against him -was re-elected again in 2012 with 53% of popular vote; so ppl obvs don’t mind his policies -he fits very much within the framework of tradition cuadillo auth and populism -he is very dependent on petroleum revenues to distribute wealth – in the 60s there was importance of commodity boom to keep everyone happy -difference is that eh is not concerned with incorporating any of the elites; differs from tradit
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