I) The Breakdown of Populist Democracy:
Characteristics of the Military Regimes of the 1960s and 70s:
-blamed the poor state of their countries on politicians (anti-political)
-military leader prioritized national security and were preoccupied with internal
-employed systematic use of repression against civilians, including torture, assassinations
Factors Leading to Democratic Breakdown:
a) Breakdown of consensus among political elites.
-idea: military would break the impasse, and allow for the return to functional civilian
b)Abuse of authority by incumbent governments.
-radicalized opposition, providing a casus belli for military intervention
c)Abuse of democratic processes by a disloyal opposition.
d) polarization of social classes
- as economic resources dwindle, greater divide between classes (I.e: workers against
-lower profits led to lower wages, greater discontent among the workers
-instilled fear within middle class, which sides with upper classes.
e) Frustration with the pace of change through constitution procedures.
-tied to increasing polarization.
f) economic crisis
-ISI reached limits wrt to the limited market available.
g) International Context
-United States - became much moer interventionist in the wake of the Cuban
revolution to prevent the proliferation of leftist regimes.
Ex) CIA- spent $40 million to undermine/prevent the rise of leftist gov’ts in Chile and
II Brazil: Setting the Trend
President Getulio Vargas (1930-1945 - as a dictator, 1951-1954 (as duly elected leader)) -Championed ISI through Estado NOVO
-Promoted workers rights, but was anticommunist.
1961 -Joao Goulart assumed the presidency with a more radical leftist brand of populism.
-attempted land reform
-made concessions to workers unions, worrying the upper classes.
1964 - Coup d’etat launched with the approval of the United States
-Military coup led by General Humberto Castelo Branco
1968: Military hardliners took over and consolidated their rule with InstitutionalAct
-legitimized use of torture and curtailed political rights.
-at the time, Washington’s second largest aid program went to Brazil.
-1968-1974: 10% growth rate.
III Chile: TheAllende Tragedy
-Chile had elite democratic traditions.
-Had one of the most stable, consolidated party systems in LatinAmerica, akin to Europe.
Popular Front - Governing c