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Political Science
Waldemar Skrobacki

Week 5Old Governance vs New Governance The NationState and Global Population Issues issues among others is the I Population and Demographics At the heart of most ecological question of population Three central problems arise from the pressures of population growth1 Dwindling Food Supply The first was highlighted by Malthus the dwindling of world food supplies The possibility of starvation is not the only Malthusian outcome If population growth strains food resources then malnutrition will continue to limit the mental and physical development of children and the energies and abilities of adultsin other words the quality of the population2 Relative Deprivation The second problem is discontent resulting from deprivation This pertains to the resentment felt among people who find themselves on the short end of an inequitable distribution of resources including food brought about by uneven patterns of population growth Environmental Decay The third problem perhaps most emphasized is 3ecological Increases in population inevitably increase the demands for natural resources thus generating ever greater environmental decay Fortunately demographers do not expect a continuation of present exponential growth rates in population The present burst in population growth is due to the drastic reduction in death rates from public health improvements in the last 200 years which is part of the demographic transition A process of falling death rates and then falling birthrates experienced by developing societies in the middle stages of which population growth is at its highest While the developed world has reached the final stage of the demographic transition where birth and death rates are very low the developing world has maintained high birthrates alongside relatively low death rates This trend of uneven population growth is a major factor in world food trade patterns A Human Population Explosion The revolutions in industrial production technology along with the medical and hygienic advances responsible for much of the increase in population have combined to increase human consumption and with consumption comes resource depletion and pollution A range of future projections have been made by the UN Population Division and these show world population stabilizing around 2040 2060 or 2110 depending on which scenario is adopted All three scenarios assume some decline in fertility rates but the intermediate projection is based on roughly the same downward trend in fertility rates witnessed since the early 1970s B Demographic Transition It took from 1800 to 1930 to add 1 billion people to the little more than a decade worlds population the most recent billion arrived in a Developing societies go through a demographic transition In the first stage typified by birthrates and death rates are relatively high Medicine and health care are underdeveloped Deaths from disease are common but there are also many births in the order to provide enough laborers for what is primarily an agrarian economy At second stage birthrates remain high because large families are an asset for agricultural production which is still central in economies in the early phases of industrialization This is a period of rapid population growth given the widening gap between birthrates and death rates In stage three industrialization urbanization and the entry of women into the workforce decrease the incentives for large families Birthrates fall and death 1
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