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Lecture 3

PSYA01H3 Lecture Notes - Lecture 3: Peripheral Nervous System, Central Nervous System, Action Potential

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Steve Joordens

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Chapter # 3: Biological Psychology
Lecture # 8
Neurons and the Nervous System
Central nervous system: deep missions are made
Peripheral nervous system: sends these missions to the body
Somatic: conscious will has impact
Autonomic: do things automatic
Parasympathetic mode: your body is worried about long term survivor.
Digesting food
Brain and peripheral nervous system keeps bod healthy
Sympathetic mode: flight or fight mode
Solve problems immediately
Short term survivor
Heart rate pumping, lungs sucking in air, body giving oxygen to body parts,
getting ready to do something
Stress is the sympathetic system telling you to do something
Touching something hot: sending signal from the peripheral nervous system to
the tip of the central nervous system, sending signal back to muscle
Somatic system overriding the autonomic system
Sensory neurons: pick up information
Inter-neurons: relay the information to the cns
Motor neurons: send signals from the cns back to the sensory neurons
Neuron can send message to other neurons to get excited or inhibitory neurons that are
Neurons sending signals:
1. Neurons are not completely connected, there is a space in between called synaptic
cleft, messages get sent when release of chemicals to synaptic cleft.
2. Chemicals have charges (- or +), there is a threshold level, if + enough then it fires
3. If the neuron fires, it will send signal down axon, the neuron connects to set of
4. Neuron sends signal to another group of neurons, not linear
5. Neural tissue transmits signals much slower than wires but it connects to more, so
more productive
*Watch crash course on action potential*
Lecture # 9
Action Potential: when an action potential decides to fire, this causes a depolarization of the next
nerve to pump out necessary ions. One axon triggers the next axon. The depolarization travels to
the end which is the end terminal axon
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Synapses: the nerve cells used to pass one signal to the other. The nerve cell
causes chemicals to be released
Neuro transmitters: transmits information from one neuron into another
Neurons: transmits nerve impulses
Millen: fatty tissue running along the axon, insulating material
1. increases conduction
2. Stops transition from other wires affecting its wire. Prevents interference
MS (Multiple Sclerosis): caused by inefficient sending of signals and the signals
being crossed
Chemical binds to the neuro transmitters
Re-uptake: neuron recycles by bringing the neuro transmitter back in and use it
Side Effects: drugs effecting the other part of the brain
Cocaine causes the brain to have more dopamine in the system
The Brain:
Cortex vs. Midbrain
Cerebral cortex is the place where high level perception of world occurs, and is
also the place where controlled motor activities originate,
Where all our controlled interactions with the external world occur
Contrast to other brain regions that are devoted to monitoring and controlling
internal behaviours and automatic responses
Every animal has a midbrain, used for survival
Brain takes 20% of our energy, oxygen
Humans have largest brain to body ratio
The Cortex: brain is wrinkled due to wanting more surface area
Primary cortex: direct sensory (or motor) connections
Association (Secondary) cortex: interpretation via memory, uses past memory to interpret
Contralateral Organization: in many cases (control of our body) the right side of our brain
relates to the left side of the body or space and vice versa. There is no answer why
Lateralization of Function: refers to the notion that the brain is composed of separated
hemispheres creating left and right sides of all cortical tissue, and sometimes the left and
right have different priorities.
(ex. Speech, and the left hemisphere so speech is not affected if something happens to the
left side of the brain)
(ex. stroke will have less of an impact on a person who is left handed).
The four lobes:
1. Parietal lobe
2. Occipital lobe
3. Frontal lobe
4. Temporal lobe
Lecture # 10
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