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Lecture 17

PSYA01H3 Lecture Notes - Lecture 17: Classical Conditioning, Startle Response, Reinforcement Learning


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYA01H3
Professor
Steve Joordens
Lecture
17

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What is Learning?
Learning: occurs when behavior or knowledge changes as a result of experience
Eg. School, motor skills, manners
When we are learning manners, is someone teaching this?
Through observation
Types of Learning
1)
Cognitive learning, lecturer to student
§
Comes from social interaction, observations, etc.
§
Taps into higher cognitive functions
2)
Associative learning
i.
Comes from different stimuli
Reinforcement learning
Event A leads to consequence Event B
Classical conditioning
Stimulus A leads to stimulus B
Stimulus
Anything that signals something about our environment
Taps into five senses
Stimulus-response mapping: through evolution, stimulus-response pairings have develope
certain stimuli trigger specific involuntary responses
Stimulus leads to response
Eg. When we see or smell food, the digestion system starts (proper food digestion)
Eg. Loud sound, leads to tenseness of body (protecting body from threat)
Unconditioned stimuli (UCS) elicit unconditioned responses (UCR) and these paring are inn
somehow serve towards survival
Stimulus -> response -> outcome
Novel stimulus
Our initial response is likely to be a startle response
We tend to perceive novel stimuli as potential signals of danger (survival instinct)
Habituation: if UCS repeatedly occurs without any positive or negative consequences, UCR
Lecture 17 (Classical Conditioning: Pavlovian Learning)
Sunday, October 27, 2019
2:29 PM

Only pages 1-3 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

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Only pages 1-3 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

Habituation: if UCS repeatedly occurs without any positive or negative consequences, UCR
Stimulus immediately goes to outcome
Classical Conditioning
Classical conditioning: an extension of stimulus response-mappings, wherein a neutral stim
become associated with a pre-existing stimulus- response pair, resulting in a new conditio
stimulus- response pair
How we learn from our environment
Baseline: Food -> Salivation
Innate stimulus-response pair: when food was presented, the dog would salivate
Food -> unconditioned stimulus (UCS)
Salivation: unconditioned response (UCR)
Baseline: Bell -> No Response
When a bell rung, it initially caused a startle response, but through habituation, the dog m
more response
Bell -> neutral stimulus
Dog -> no response
Conditioning: Bell + Food
Over many trails, the bell was presented just before the food was presented
Bell ->. Conditioned stimulus (CS)
Food -> unconditioned stimulus (UCS)
Salivation -> UCR
Testing: Bell -> Salivation
After many conditioning trials, the ring of the bell alone could now elicit salivation
Bell -> conditioned stimulus
Salivation: conditioned response
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