PSYA01H3 Lecture Notes - Lecture 23: Rationality, Venn Diagram

190 views1 pages
Published on 26 Nov 2015
School
Department
Course
PSYA01Lecture#23Thought
FreeWillandRationality
● Weoftenfeelasthoughthechoiceswemakeinlifearerationale
● Theyaretheresultofmentalcalculationsrelatedtothecostsandbenefitsofperforming
certainactions
● Thenotionthatwemakechoicesbymaximizingbenefitsandminimizingcostsiscalled
RationalChoiceTheory
● Thisnotionhasstrongtiestoethics,religion,andlaw
● Webelievethatsomechoicesare“wrong”andpunishthosewhomakethem…
assumingtheymadearationalchoice
● Althoughwemaysometimes(occasionally?)makechoicesinthisway,mostofthe
psychologicalevidencesuggestsourchoicesareoftenfarlessrationalthanwemight
liketothink
ShortcutstoRationality
● Theproblemis,truefulloutrationalthoughtishard(especiallywhenprobabilitiesare
involved!)
● Itinvolvestheconsiderationofmanyfactorsandhowtheymightinteracttodetermine
theimpactofcertainchoices
● Therefore,weuseshortcutsorheuristics
● Examples:
○ ComicThisiswhypeopleshouldlearnstatistics(Availability)
■ Panel1:Guysaying“Iwillnotflyinaplane!Theyaren’tsafefrom
terrorists!”
■ Panel2:Guyissayingthiswhiledrivingacarandspeakingonthephone
“Holdon.I’lltextyouanarticleaboutit.”
○ Venndiagram(Conjunction)
■ Circle1:Banktellers
■ Middle:Feministbanktellers
■ Circle2:Feminists
■ Lindais31yearsold;single,outspokenandverybright.InCollegeshe
majoredinPhilosophy.Asastudentshewasdeeplyconcernedwith
issuesofdiscriminationandsocialjustice,andsheparticipatedin
antinucleardemonstrations.Whichofthefollowingismorelikely(a)
Lindaisabankteller,or(b)Lindaisabanktellerandafeminist
Moral
● Truerationalthoughtishard,anditdoesn’tseemnaturalforhumans
● Oftenourdecisionsarenotbasedonrationalthought
● Whenwearerequiredtothinkrationally,whenwemustsolveproblemsforexample,we
relyheavilyonshortcutsandcontexttohelpus
Unlock document

This preview shows half of the first page of the document.
Unlock all 1 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in

Get OneClass Notes+

Unlimited access to class notes and textbook notes.

YearlyBest Value
75% OFF
$8 USD/m
Monthly
$30 USD/m
You will be charged $96 USD upfront and auto renewed at the end of each cycle. You may cancel anytime under Payment Settings. For more information, see our Terms and Privacy.
Payments are encrypted using 256-bit SSL. Powered by Stripe.