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Psychology Lecture 34.docx

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Steve Joordens

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Psychology Lecture 34
Slide 41: Retrieval of memories happens automatically (ex. You remember a song from 10 years ago). It
doesn’t interfere with your current actions.
Slide 42: In reading, exposure to words triggers the reading. Simple contact with words triggers reading.
With retrieval you need cues.
Slide 43: If the right cues aren’t available, you have the –tip at the tongue situation. You get stuck until
you get the cues.
Ex: when you lose something, you retrace your steps to see where you might have left the item. This
procedure allows you to retrieve the cues to remember.
Slide 44: there are special ways to write underwater. People learn a list of items and are asked to
remember. Half of them learn on land, and the other half under water. They then write the words where
they are. They are retrieving in the same situation where they have learned. You also mix up the
What was found out was that you are best at retrieving at the place where you learned.
For exams you should recreate the context of the exam location so that when you are writing the test,
you can retrieve information fast.
State-dependent learning- the internal context is also important: ex. When drunk, you can’t remember
stuff when you’re sober, but you recall things when you are drunk. Your mood is also another factor.
The claim is that listening to a moody song could help recreate the exam place, since you will feel tired,
nervous etc.
This is why writing MC questions are a good way to create a basis in your mind for the test.
Slide 45: Ebbinghaus experimented by memorizing nonsense words.
Slide 46: After a few days, most material are forgotten.
An experiment with elder people: They asked the people to match the names with pictures in their high
school yearbook, and they were able to remember most of them. That’s because it was easier to
remember these since they interacted with these people.
The new experiences bury the past ones, but relearning can bring the distant memories faster.
There was a car accident, and seven witnesses say that the survivor was the one who caused it.
However, when recreating the scenario the one who got killed was the one who caused the accident.
Why were seven witnesses so confident when they were wrong?
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