PSYA02H3 Lecture Notes - Lecture 4: Standard Deviation
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•Studying individual differences: understanding the average human = nomomethic
•Understanding why and how humans differ is called “individual differences”
Most societies believe it is in the interest of the populace to financial support the education of its
citizens … an educated (intelligent?) populace leads to a better country … more innovation,
stronger economy … power
An ability to measure “intelligence” might be beneficial in a couple of ways …
1. It allows you to assess whether certain educational approaches lead to higher levels of
2. It may allow one to tailor a child’s education to their current abilities
But how does one measure intelligence?
What is intelligence?
Name some intelligent people … what is it about them that you are relating to intelligence e.g.
Einstein –he thought about things differently
A Brief History
•Galton, a cousin of Darwin, was into measuring humans in every way possible …
including measuring their ability to make sensory discriminations which he assumed
was linked to intellectual prowess - link to normal distributions.
•However, the measure of intelligence really took the work of Binet who thought that
intelligence was not reflected in abilities to make sensory discriminations, but instead,
was reflected by performance on a variety of paper-and-pencil tests targeting such
things as imagery, attention, comprehension, imagination, judgements of visual space,
•The Binet-Simon test (1905) was the first such test
•The scale was revised in 1916 and changed to “The Stanford-binet test” –the IQ of a
person was represented by their mental age divided by their chronological age and
multiplied by 100
•The test was revised again in 1985, and the way that IQ is measured was also
changed. The test was set up in a way such that the average score is 100, and the
standard deviation is 16.
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