PSYA02H3 Lecture Notes - Explicit Knowledge, Crib Talk, Surface Roughness

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13 Apr 2012
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PSYA02- LECTURE 2- 01/11/12
-LANGUAGE ACQUISITION
- to remember something, you need to have a working memory.
- it takes effort to get something into your long term memory
- the brain is good at picking up things like structure- grammar
-Chompsey- We atre born with a hardwire to grammar
- some cultures don’t differentiate between phonemes
- some sounds we don’t have in our language
- kids can have a sensitivity to language, but they can lose it if it is not used in their culture
- at 12 months, babies start producing vocalization, which are consonants
- children learn the non verbal as well. They learn it before they learn the meanings
- kids do not have a fancy voacalization- “prespeech”
- they start to put words into pairs at 1- 20 months
- 2-5 years of age is the critical period- if exposed to language, they pick it up pretty well
- they cannot or will have a hard time learning to speak after this
- they learn about 7-9 words a day
- crib talk/ monotalk- they start talking to themselves. This shows that language is internal and they start
thinking that way or their thoughts now have a way to get out.
- need to learn grammar/ inflections- eg. past tense
- we implicitly know what’s right. If you know WHY it’s right, that is explicit knowledge
- a lot of common verbs that we use have exceptions to pluralism
- children learn the rule but they over exaggerate it
- they have to learn the meanings of the words
- they need to learn not to generalize the words. Eg Ball- not every round thing is a ball. They need to
learn what all the round things are used for.
- animals can learn to distinguish verbal sounds
- Deep Structure- the meaning of a sentence. The main thing that you are trying to say
- Surface structure- grammatical features of a sentence that help you convey the deep structure
meaning clearly.
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