# PSYB01H3 Lecture Notes - Lecture 5: Semantic Differential, Nimber, Simple Random Sample

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Published on 21 Nov 2012
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Department
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Lecture Outline: Surveys and Questionnaires 2012-10-11 Week 5
Survey vs. Questionnaire
- Survey:
o Large-scale
o Want info on population
- Questionnaire:
o Instrument used for survey; you never say I am doing a questionnaire, cuz it is always with the
survey
o Also used to collect information on smaller scale
Steps in Questionnaire Development
1. Define objectives
2. List variables: What is the IV, DV, or background variables like demography; but the background variable is
not always important as other two; in the experiment, usually they don’t have that many variables
3. Operationalize variables as questions: this is the only way to measure the variables. You have to figure out
what wording you could use;
4. Develop wordings
5. Write proposed questions on index cards: not only for questionnaire, but it is also a good way to write essays;
trying to figure out what particular way you want to put them all in a order;
6. Pre-test: you need to make sure all the questions you put up are good questions; to make sure not wasting
money and the energy of other ppl; make sure not to upset the participants cuz it is a very time consuming
thing
o Use yourself, experts, laypeople to help you to pre-test
Do they understand the question/instructions? Don’t just give to ppl and saying that hey
could you just answer this. You may ask ppl that could you plz critique it or write on some
Do question mean same thing to all? To make sure that do ppl understand your question in
the same way?
Do questions elicit info you want? Could you find some variation in answers?
How long does it take? Ppl want to know about their time commitment to response the
questionnaires.
7. Shorten List: usually, designing questionnaire do not include many questions; no unnecessary questions;
8. Refine questions: based on the feedback from the pre-test
Types of Questions: normally, you start with an instruction and how long it may take; normally, starts with easy
question without thinking; but NO demographic question (income, age, sex and so on) in the beginning, and this is
usually at the end; putting this in the beginning, ppl may think you will ask some private question and may be
unwilling to answer other questions or affect their feeling of answering question.
1) Presence-absence
o Check off which items that do or do not apply example: have you ever dated anyone you met at any of
the following palces/evets? Circle yes or no
At work
Yes no
At school
Yes no
At a community event
Yes no
At a bar or restaruarant
Yes no
Through a friend
Yes no
2) Single-choice:
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o Indicate which one category applies
o Options s/b mutually exclusive and exhaustive
If not exhaustive, include others with a space after it
Ex: what year are you in at university
First
【】
Second
【】
Third
【】
Fourth
【】
Other
______________________________________
3) Likert-type
o Indicate how much they agree or disagree with a statement, like or dislike something, etc.
o Example: in the following, circle a number to indicate the extent to which you agree or disagree
with each statement
I believe capital punishment represents the most effective deterrent to murder
Strongly disagree 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 strongly agree
I believe a murderer can be rehabilitated to become a responsible functioning member of
society
Strongly disagree 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 strongly agree
o Different direction of the question; because you don’t want ppl to just circle down the same thing
without thinking; if you get different directions, ppl may take it more seriously about your question,
and you will get better and more various results.
o Tips for Likert-style question:
Strongly agree always on the right side, with 5/7/9 for strong agreementput the positive
one on the rightin case ppl don’t really pay attention to the question: ppl thinking the
positive thing is in the right side.
Word some statements (+), others (-)
Use the direct (-) statements
Vary strength of wording for variation in response
Ex: the nursing care I received was good,
The nursing care I received was perfect in every instance.
The previous two question, ppl wont answer in the same way; and it will be more
things in your data
4) Graphic rating scales and non-verbal scales
o Don’t want labels to affect how the person responds, for low literacy skills, children.
Ex: how would you rate the selection of food on campus?
Not much selection at all -----------------------------------------excellent selection
Asking ppl put a mark on the bar;
How would rate the level of pain by using different smiling/crying face
5) Rank-ordering questions:
o Ask for only 3-5 most important items(top 3 or top 5)
o Make instructions explicit: place 1 is the most important, and Place 2 is the second important
Try to make it clear!!!!
o s/b minimizedtake time to answer, limit data analysis options
o example: rank oder the three most important characteristics you want in your future career, place a
1 beside the most important one, a 2 beside the second most important one, and a 3 bdside the next
most important one
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High salary
___________________________
Security
___________________________
Intrinsic interest
___________________________
Power
___________________________
Excitement
___________________________
Prestige
___________________________
6) Semantic differential scales:
o Used for measuring the meaning of the concepts, objects, events
o 1. Low quality -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 high quality
o 2. Economical -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 luxurious
o 3. Masculine -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 Feminine
o Or to draw dot on a graph for one question (usually a product )
7) Open-ended:
o Use when
Too many response options
For example, what year they are born? It is impossible for you to list out all the
years; usually, you just put up a line for ppl to fill up
Don’t want to impose categories or wording
Don’t know what categories are
Change of pace
o Open-ended questions: Pros & cons
o Permits detail, clarification: if you ppl agree or disagree with something, and explain
why disagree or not
Some ppl you have a different reason for saying something that you may
never think up, and this is what you want to catch up in your questionnaires
o Reveals the logic behind response
Asking ppl why they are answering question in particular way
o Generalization or comparison difficult
It is hard to compared between the individuals; not like close-ended, there
are categories, and you could compare them within the categories
You may categories all the answers
What is your favourite TV show? You may then categorize them into
women or men and then analyse them
o Coding and statistical analysis difficult
It is very time consuming thing
o Irrelevant answers possible
o Bias towards educated: the higher education, the more writing, and more possible
responses will be
o Example: open-ended question
If you work outside of school, what is your occupation?
____________________________________________________________________________
Brief Job description
____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
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