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PSYB10H3 Lecture Notes - James Mark Baldwin, Implicit-Association Test, Semantic Network

Course Code
Elizabeth Page- Gould

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- The self: an individual conscious of one’s own identity
- Feelings observations and thoughts
- Self awareness: awareness of the self as an entity that is distinct from others and the
- Mark test: the experimenter exposes a child, animal to a mirror. You get used to seeing yourself
in the mirror. The experimenter puts a mark on their cheek, nose, etc. Used to be called the
“rouge test”
o They do this without the child knowing. Once the mark is on your face and you see your
face again do you think that its you or is it someone else?
o What do you do if there is something different on your face? If you think its someone
else you would reach towards the mirror
o Once they get to year and half, most humans are able to pass the mark test.
o Urangatangs, pass the mark test, and other monkeys don’t . The baboon does not
understand, and believes that its looking at something else. The animal is unable to
make this distinction
o Humans develop the ability to recognize ourselves as being distinct. There is a time
period that occurs between 3-4 years , we are distinct and different from others.
- Levels of the Self
o Minimal self: conscious experience of the self as distinct from the environment: this
occurs through double stimulation. If you touch anything that is not yourself, you feel
the feeling, of the hand on the podium. If you touch your own arm, you feel your arm
touching your hand , (works both ways)
o Objectified self: cognitive capacity to serve as the object of one’s own attention
o Symbolic self: ability to form an abstract mental representation of oneself through
o Inherently social: “my thought of self.. is filled up with my thoughts of others and my
thoughts of others are mainly filled up with myself” – James mark Baldwin
o You think of who you are in relation to comparing yourself to other people.
- Self Concept: your concept of who you are.
- We protect the self concept . What goes into it is everything you know about yourself. Includes
qualities , identities, roles, etc.
- Self schema: cognitive representation of the self- concept
o The concepts and words in yours semantic nework that are associated with your sense
of self. Guides processing of self-related information.
- Looks at how the self concept is organized in your head
- Cognitive representation of the self concept
- How to measure the self concept
o Twenty statements test (TST) I am… (blank)
o Take the proportion of the number of the statements that are individual qualities, vs.
the social roles ( or collective qualities)

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o There are differences between what part of the self-concept involves social roles.
o Self complexity : the depth and complexity of your self concept
o Operationalize as much as the number of distinct aspects used to define the self
concept: (fit, runner, athlete) can be clumped together as one concept
o If the terms are different then , the person has a diverse self concept
o “implicit personality test” seated in front of a computer , and you see a series of
personality traits pop up on the screen and for every quality that appears on the screen
you say “me “ or “not me”
If the trait describe you better, you recognize the word FASTER
If the word cruel pops up, the person would be very quick to say not me
Looking at reaction times , in relation to how people associated themselves.
Markus (1977)
101 college students
Method: took explicit personality test
They were focusing on how independent they considered themselves to
They divided people on their personality tests (high independence vs.
dependents, and aschematics (don’t think their independent) (look at
o Global versus contextualized self
Global self concept:
I am ____________
How you behave around your parents is different from how you behave around
your friends
I am ____________ when _______________
Organization depends on the extent of the context of the situation
o If you view yourself as contextualized individuals, you don’t necessarily get negative
feelings for failing, because its based on the situation. Whereas if you approach the self
from a global perspective, you may perceive yourself as failing all the time, which
negatively affects the esteem.
o A subject of your self- concept that is presently accessible.
o What goes in the working self concept? Recently primed aspects of the self (honesty)
o Contextually distinctive aspects : at school there are aspects of your student identity
that are incorporated into your personal identity.
o “central” aspects of the self
Are chronically accessible to who you really are. Some aspects of our working
self concept will always be there and those are our central traits.
Some aspects of the self concept are more personally important to you than

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Central trait is something you think about a lot and you view it to be very
important. Central aspects are chronically accessible in your semantic network.
Measuring self concept centrality :
You get a piece of paper : in the middle of the circle it says me, it represents you
and who you are (write traits that represent who you are, put them in the circle)
Traits that very closely represent who you are in the middle of the circle, and
those that you don’t think about a lot, you put further away in the circle
Terms that are in the middle of the circle are more central to describing who the
person is.
Self evaluative maintenance
if someone close to you outperforms you in a particular domain then , you will
be threatened if the domain is central to yourself concept
You and your friend take the same course, but they do better than you
Performing well in psyb10 will be important to you , and is an integral
component of your self concept. MUST be central to your self-concept.
If its not central to your self concept , then you tend to feel pride and positive
self evaluations even though they did better then you in the course.
You will be proud if the domain is not central to your self-concept
o If the domain is central to the self concept:
Distance yourself from the relationship don’t hang out with the friend
Distance self form the task domain you can maintain a positive self evaluation
by devaluing the importance of getting a good grade in the course
o If domain is not central to self-concept
Vicarious self esteem boost
Magnitude of self-esteem proportional to closeness of relationship
If someone outperforms them on a domain that you dont care about, if there
close to you , you will have positive reactions for them (be proud of them
because they did well)
- Strategy to buffer the self form an anticipated failure or embarrassment by undermining ones
own performance
- You think your going to fail on an important thing that is central to who you are. People
consciously engage them in certain processes that set them up to fail and in that case you can
blame your failure on the situation
a) You study really hard for a test , get lots of sleep , eat a good breakfast, and then you get a C
b) You go to a bar with your friends and drink, study, and sleep form 4-10 and then take your test
and get a C on it.
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