PSYB10H3 Lecture Notes - Lecture 5: Androcentrism, Affective Forecasting, Feces

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Published on 31 May 2016
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PSYB10 – Introduction to Social Psychology
LEC 05: Emotions and Morality
Emotions
- Brief – couple seconds/minutes
- Specific – responses to specific events (ex. being angry at an insult)
- Motivational states
- Motivate behaviour to achieve goals related to survival and social functioning (ex. fear
motivates escape from threats)
- Emotions have psychological effects that drive behavior (ex. strong urges to run, hide, or fight)
- Emotions have physiological effects that help the body achieve those goals (ex. “fight or flight”
responses that increase heart rate, respiration, and blood flow to muscles)
Components of emotions
- Physiological state
oAutonomic nervous system – the glands, organs and blood vessels controlled by the
brain and spinal cord that regulate the bodily responses to the environment
oSympathetic branch prepares the body for action
Ex. increased heart rate, breathing and blood pressure aid in physically
demanding action
Ex. fight or flight response
oParasympathetic branch returns the body to its resting state
Restorative
Decreased heart rate and blood pressure increased digestive processes
- Cognition (appraisals) - how objects and events in our environment are evaluated relative to our
current goals
oDifferent appraisals lead to different emotions
Unfair – anger, dangerous – fear, delicious – happiness
oPrimary appraisal stage – initial, quick appraisal made of an event or circumstance, lead
to an initial pleasant or unpleasant feeling
oSecondary appraisal stage – later appraisal, which concerns why we feel the way we do
and how we would like to response, lead to specific emotions like fear, anger, pride, etc.
- Facial expression (sometimes)
oRecognized cross-culturally
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PSYB10 – Introduction to Social Psychology
oResemble displays of other primates (ex. chimps and other social mammals)
oInnate – blind and sighted people show similar facial expressions
Evolutionary view – emotions are biologically based behavioural adaptations meant to promote survival
and reproduction
- Physiological responses to emotions should be cross-culturally universal
Cultural view – emotions are influenced by views of self, social values and social roles which vary
between culture
- Emotion accents – culturally specific ways that emotions are expressed
- Display rules – cultural norms for whether/which emotion should be expressed
Both evolutionary and cultural views are correct because emotional responses are innate and universal
but cultures have different emotional accents and display rules
Emotions have wide-ranging effects on how we process information and make judgements
Emotions affect judgements – feelings-as-information – people may rely on current feelings or emotions
to provide rapid, easily available information (ex. is he trustworthy?)
Emotions affect info processing
- Positive and negative emotions lead to different types of info processing
oPositive moods lead to more top-down thinking (more reliance on schemas and
heuristics)
oNegative moods lead to more bottom-up thinking (more systematic/analytic thinking
esp. for emotions linked to sadness [they lead to less stereotypes])
Cognitive benefits of positive emotions
- Positive emotions have been linked with more creative and flexible thinking
oPeople in good moods give more novel word associations and categorize more
inclusively
oNegotiators in positive mods are more likely to come to an optimal agreement
Thinking about emotions
- Remembering emotions – duration neglect – the length of an emotional experience has little
influence on the overall evaluation of how pleasurable or un-pleasurable the experience was
- Predicting emotions – affective forecasting – predicting how we will feel during or after a
particular event in the future (ex. how happy you’d be after a romantic breakup)
oFocalism – the tendency to focus on only one aspect of an experience or event when
trying to predict future emotions
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