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Lecture

social lec 16.docx


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYB10H3
Professor
Kevin Page

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Psyb10 lec 16
Close relationships
Harlows monkeys : effects of social isolation
It is a very powerful thing. Wanting to belong is also a powerful thing
Study: socially isolate his monkeys for 3 months, gave them food soft beds, and the one thing
that was missing was social interaction. What happens: dramatic disturbances, huddled alone,
self mutilation, rocking.
Negative impact of isolation can be reduced by introducing a monkey that has not been
isolated: monkey therapy. After the therapy though they still remain a little stressed out when
introduced to the fear stimulus. But they eventually recover after about 6 months.
Attachment theory
Infant attachment: describes how infants are emotionally attached to their caregivers or
emotionally distressed at loss of caregiver.
Functional purpose: comforts fearful child, builds expectations for future relationship, provides
secure base. So when infant goes to explore, they know that have something to go back to if
you run into danger while exploring.x
Imprinting: a form of attachment that occurs shortly after birth\hatching among many species.
Occurs during the sensitive period
Show of distress when imprinted object is removed.
Among humans: humans enter the world predisposed to seek faces of primary caregiver. They
do cause they find social interaction rewarding, and they have instinctive fear of the unknown.
Adult attachment: attachment bonds that are formed when you’re a child, influence your
attachment bonds when your older.
Good attachment bonds
-like being close, prefer proximity and get distress from separation
-they turn to their partner for security.
-derive security, and allows us to explore and engage with the rest of the world.
Secure attachment: find it easy to get close to others, trust them comfy with them trusting
you.dont worry about people too close or being abandoned.
56% of humans.
Believe they are likable, trust others, believe in enduring love. They carry positive emotions.
They remember their caregivers to of been dependable responsive and caring.
Anxious-ambivalent attachment: other get close like you want, worry that your partner doesn’t
love you or want to stay with you, you want to merge completely with someone but it scares
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people away. They wanna love people more than others wanna be loved. Throw themselves
into relationships and say they’re in love, scare people away so they ruminate about rejection.
Always wanna be with someone. Struggle to merge with someone, can be painful. They can fall
in love easily, difficult to find true love though,and so they have a lot of self doubt. They
remember a mixture of positive and negative experiences from their caregiver.
Avoidant attachment style: uncomfortable being close with others, can’t trust others
completely, so I cant find myself to depend on them. I get nervous when others get close, and
love partners want me to be more intimate that I feel comfy with.
Just don’t like to be close.
They are doubtful that true love exists, and that they don’t need a partner in order to be happy,
tend to view themselves as independent and self reliant. Remember their caregivers as not
being warm.
Think of attachment as varying on 2 different dimensions. Attachment avoidance or attachment
anxiety.
Secure attachment is low anxiety, and
Global vs context
Global attachment: general attachment tendencies. How you typically approach attachment
relationships
Specific attachment: in different cases we have specific attachment tendencies with different
people. Slightly different attachment with specific people. If your specific attachments
represent different styles, your global attachment will change.
Almost everyone has had a specific attachment of each kind.
Types of relationships
Friends, enemies and romantic.
Friendships: platonic interpersonal closeness. There is no sexual acts going on. Your friends can
be just as close as anyone else.
Cultural variations: in Ghana they think its wrong when people don’t have friends rather than
think its sad like in the US. In Ghana friends are more likely to give you money in food more
than US. In US they respect their friends more. In Ghana there is more caution between friends.
Enemyship: strong bond of animosity, distrust and goal interference.
In Ghana they believe if you don’t have enemies your foolish.
Resons for enemies: in us enemies are group based more likely than in Ghana. (group people
belong to.)
Romantic relationships: friendship where there is a sexual procreative goal.
Self expansion theory :experience of closeness, is and associative overlap of our self concept of
a close other.
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