Peer Relations and Moral Development
•Why do we need to know about Peer Relations and why does it matter?
oIf they are not social, problems could arise.
oHaving knowledge of this, you can figure out the reasons why students act
oChildren with positive social skills = no difficulty making friends
oPoor Social Skills = might be social rejected
oChildren with positive social skills tend to be more successful
•School is the venue for people to develop social skills and to develop a sense of self
and who they are
Understanding Race and Identity
•Plays in a role in social interaction with others
•Many children grow up and only know other kids of the same ethnic group, perhaps
because of environment or parent’s friends.
•Preschoolers do not realise that races are stable.
o“Do dark people drink chocolate milk?” This is an example of a preschooler
oWe shouldn’t expect kids to have a strong understanding of this, and it’s
important for teachers to place in their minds the right values regarding race.
•Young children often have a pro-white bias, as a colour.
oLots of data to back this out, but researchers have not figured it out.
oPerhaps it was because of media, where superheroes tend to be adorned in
white while the villains are dressed in black.
•In adolescence, begin to understand the social implications of ethnicity.
oThis age group tend to care more about race, despite popular belief.
oStudies have shown that adolescences like to group together of the same race.
o“Birds of a feather flock together” and “opposites attract”. Two common
saying, but the bird one is true.
oWe try to find people similar to us.
Role of peers in development
•Peer – A child of equal age or maturity
•Peers do many things (listed on the slide)
•Particularly important one on the list is “Play an important role in fostering school
enegagement, motivation, and achievement”
oWe see that students of similar grade levels tend to flock together, whether in
projects of in general.
Development of Peer Relations
•Child 3 to 5, things that are important is doing things together.
o“We Play” is how a child of this age would describe this.
•By Age 6 to 10
oAt this time, being socially accepted becomes more important at this point.
oKids tend to be socializing around the same gender group.
•By late adolescence
oThis is the time where conformity to peer pressure decline.
oArea of trickiness because peers start becoming in intimate relationships.
Popularity, Rejection, and Neglect
•Popularity defined in the textbook seems objective, because one can see it differently
and how its defined.
•Popular children tend to be friendly, helpful, good-natured, cooperative, sensitive, do
well in school, obey rules.
oNot how popular girls are defined in media – Mean girls.
oPeople who are able to maintain relationships with peers.
•What’s the difference between rejection and neglect
oRejection is where one is outward statement of haunt and actively pushed
oNeglected are simply ignored and not attended all around.
•Rejected children may not be aggressive as stated in slide, but may end up
oCharacteristics we might see is academic decline.
•Neglected children describes themselves as normal.
oAs a teacher, you should not only focus on the rejected but all around
including neglecting kids, where a child may not necessarily choose to be
alone and just need a push to become sociable.
Social Rejection and Sexual Orientation
•More research shows that sexual orientation is a reason for social rejection
•Schools have legal responsibility to protect all children, despite any sexual
•Can play what social interaction in the classroom may look like.
How can teachers enhance peer relations?
•Perhaps forcing kids together with people they have not before.
•Very young children, encourage them to play together and have them develop
relationships with people and have them solve conflicts among themselves.
•Among older children, use collaborative learning opportunities to have them work
Two common saying, but the bird one is t rue: we try to find people similar to us. Cooperative learning activities: this can be found in a box in the chapter. In cooperative learning, there is: interdependence and a shared goal, individual and group accountability. Indiviual accountability is huge, and everyone needs to feel that they are there to have this work out. where there is a bunch of people there, some don"t feel that they have to put forth as much effort. Leads to diffusion of responsibility, which means that when we see a lot of people, we make the assumption that the more people there is, the less output we need: building interpersonal and small group skills. teachers need to teach students these aspects, and must take the assumption that kids do not know how to do these things: group processes.