Intro - there are limits to trait concept and explanatory behaviour. Talk about characteristic adaptations new domain of constructs, what are the stylistic ways to which we adapt to environment. David mcclellan pioneered study of several motivations/needs, implicit motive motivational quality that exists inside us but outside our conscious awareness, he pioneered study of implicit motivation in area of need of achievement and later power and intimacy. Mcclellan"s definition of motive: recurrent preference or readiness for a particular quality of experience. Which energizes, directs and selects behaviour in certain situations. Motives are like a lens, way of filtering ones experience into kinds of qualities that are most meaningful to us. Motives are different from traits, traits refer to what , motivational constructs reference questions that begin with why why someone has done something for example. What is the motive underlying or residing behind our behaviour, motives are different from traits.