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Lecture 3

PSYB30H3 Lecture Notes - Lecture 3: Interpersonal Circumplex, Cognitive Evaluation Theory, Motivation

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Marc A Fournier

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Lecture Notes 3
Lecture 8: Goals & Needs
Part I. Humanism
An optimistic view of the person as inherently good
Psychoanalysis was first then behaviorism
Views the human being as rational, purposeful and autonomous, capable of
creativity and experiencing deeps and profound insights into reality
The third force of psychology a viable viewpoint on human nature that is
distinctive from both psychoanalysis and behaviorism
Carl Rogers (1902-1987)
The organism has but one basic tendency and striving to actualize,
maintain, and enhance the experiencing organism
The Organismic Valuing Process (OVP)
o Human have a fundamental capacity to perceive the growth-relevant
implications of their experiences and choices
Every organism is able to evaluate their surrounding
environment in order to get what they need
The Fully Functioning Person
Openness to Experience
o Capacity to adopt accepting and non-defensive attitudes towards ones
feelings and attitudes
Existential Living
o Being here now (living in the moment)
o Feels free to do what feels right & trust those intuitions
All three are interrelated and influence one another
Not guaranteed that we all become fully functional
On Becoming a Person
Positive Regard
o Need to be loved, valued, regarded positively
Conditions of Worth
o There are conditions attached to love
o Conditions that need to be met in order to get love and approval
Conditional Positive Regard
o Does not need to explicit just experienced by the child
o Condition attached to worth
Client-Centered Therapy
Unconditional Positive Regard
o The counselor will be unconditionally positive to the client
Empathic Understanding
o The counselor will try to be as empathetic as possible
Reflection: client will be able to accept themselves
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Abraham Maslow (1908-1970)
Deficiency motives: deprived of one of theses needs (physiological, safety,
belongingness & love, esteem)
Highest order of need: self-actualization (fulfill unique potential)
Being-Values or Meta-Needs
Highest-order needs that emerge once the deficiency motives have been satisfied
o Truth-seeking, beauty-seeking (concerned with self-actualization)
o Self-reinforcing
Meta needs grow with time and become a part of us as developing people
Peak Experiences
Following peak experiences, individuals feel:
o At the peak of their ability
o Integrated, whole and unified
o Creative, self-confidence, flexible
o Spontaneous, expressive, innocent
Religious transformation
Flaws with Maslow’s Hierarchy
Priority of Needs
o Some needs need to be met before going higher
Can not be self-actualized if you are homeless
Ordering of Needs
o Need esteem before love or love before esteem?
Definition of Needs
o When is a need met?
Studio apartment vs. mansion
Part II. Self-Determination Theory
Cognitive Evaluation Theory
First component of SDT, highlights motivation because concerned with the quality of
Intrinsic Motivation
o Doing something for its own sake (interest or fun)
Extrinsic Motivation
o Doing something to attain instrumentally separate outcomes
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There are behaviors that occur in the absence of rewards
The free choice paradigm
o Students are asked to solve a series of puzzle
o Students are paid or not paid for solving the puzzles
o Students’ behavior during a free-choice (when instructor leaves)
period is observed
Intrinsically Motivated Behaviors
o Occur in the absence of any apparent external reward
o Are undertaken out the interest (self-determined) we determine
whether we perform in it or not
o Are optimally challenging for the individual right level of skill for
each individual
o Are based on basic psychological needs
Cognitive Evaluation Theory (table)
o Verbal rewards increase intrinsic motivation
o Tangible rewards decrease intrinsic motivation
o Having expected reward on engagement and completion of the task;
spoil intrinsic motivation
Organismic Integration Theory
External Regulation
o Acting in accord with extrinsic rewards and punishments (consequences)
o Acting in accord with partially internalized extrinsic contingencies, which
are experienced as self-esteem related feelings (anxiety, guilt)
o Acting in accord with fully internalized (but compartmentalized) extrinsic
contingencies which are consciously endorsed and personally values
Integrated Regulation
o Acting in accord with fully internalized extrinsic contingencies which
have been unified with other identifications, values and needs
Correlates of Autonomous Motivation
o Greater persistence, performance, interest, enjoyment, flexibility,
o Better mental health, well-being, quality relationships, physical health
Basic Psychological Needs Theory
People are active and growth-orientated organisms
o The actualizing tendency (intrinsic motivation)
o The integrating tendency (internalization)
Healthy development cannot be taken for granted
o People have basic (universal) psychological needs
Need for autonomy
o Need to feel volitional, sense of personal endorsement
Need for competence
o Need to feel effective, a growing sense of mastery
Need for relatedness feel connected/valued by others
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