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Lecture 8

PSYB30H3 Lecture Notes - Lecture 8: Projective Test, Ted Kaczynski, Thematic Apperception Test


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYB30H3
Professor
Lisa Fiksenbaum
Lecture
8

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Motives and Personality
March 7th, 2018-LECTURE 8-Motives and Personality
Introduction
Motivational psychologists ask, “What drives people to do the
things they do?”
These motives operate through conscious or unconscious
mental processes that generate intrapsychic influence on
behavior
Basic Concepts
• Motive:
Internal state that arouses and directs behavior toward a
specific object or goal
Motive is caused by a deficit, a lack of something
Motives differ from each other in type and amount
Motives are based on needs: States of tension within a
person, and as need is satisfied, tension is reduced
-Motivational psychologists stress the importance of internal
psychological needs and urges that propel people to think, perceive, and
act in predictable ways
-Reliance on projective techniques (Rorschach, TAT)
Why do we care about motives?
Motives are part of personality
Differences contribute to major life outcomes
Motives are stable over time Motives tell us (part of) why
people behave the way they do
Motive Theories and Personality
1. Early Motive Theorists Murray, McClelland, McAdams
2. The Humanistic (a.k.a. Phenomenological) Perspective

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Henry Murray’s Theory of Needs
Need refers to a readiness to respond in a certain way under
certain
Needs organized action by compelling a person to do what is
necessary to satisfy a need
Needs refer to states of tension, satisfying and not a tensionless
state per se
Needs organize perception, guiding us to “see” what we want
(need) to see
Each need is associated with a specific desire or intention,
particular set of emotions, specific action tendencies, and can
be described with trait names
Each person has a unique hierarchy of needs
Elements in the environment affect a person’s needs
Murray distinguished between the physical primary and the psychological
secondary needs
Murray Identified 13 viscerogenic (primary) needs which included the
need for sex
Several Types of Needs
1. Focal and Diffuse
2. Proactive and Active
3. Manifest and Latent
4. Conscious and Unconscious
5. Unconscious needs form and dissociated collective in what Murray
referred to as the later ego
-Each person has a unique hierarchy of needs-individual’s needs can be
thought of as existing at a different level of strength
-High levels of some needs interacted with the amounts of various other
needs within each person-interaction makes the motive concept dynamic
-Elements in the environment affect a person’s needs

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Need for Intimacy
-Consistent sex difference: women, on average, have a higher need for
intimacy
Henry Murray and Psychological Needs
Murray believed the study of personality should examine the
entire person across the lifespan
Murray’s multiform method involved gathering information from
many observers across various situations
Murray used the term personology to describe his study of
human lives and individual differences in personality
Murray described a habit system as automatic, unconscious
behaviours shaped by the id, ego, and superego
Murray emphasized positive instincts related to motivation and
needs
Importance of the situation=press
Alpha press=objective reality
Beta press=subjective, perceived reality
Thema=single episode involving the interaction of internal and external
factors
Murray believed the study of personality should examine the
entire person across the lifespan
Murray’s multiform method involved gathering information
from many observers across various situations
Need for Power
-Sex differences, men with high need for power perform a variety of
impulsive ad aggressive behaviours, unlike women
-Profligate impulsive behaviours (drinking, aggression, sexual
exploitation) are less likely to occur if a person has responsibility training
-People with a high need for power do not deal well with frustration and
conflict-show strong stress responses, including high blood pressure
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