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CA (650,000)
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Psychology (9,000)
PSYB30H3 (500)

Lecture 2

Course Code
Marc A Fournier

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Lecture 2
Constructs variables we use to categorize the rules
Correspondence rules
Dependency is unhealthy implies two constructs, dependency and health
and a relationship between them how to formalize and test
Criteria that have been established we can use to judge theories. 7 widely
accepted criteria (listed in order)
Coherent logical, statements need to hang together, there needs to be
internal consistency, theory should not contradict itself
Testable give rise to hypotheses that are clearly falsifiable, scientists
needs to verify propositions about world, theory should specify what we
must look at in the world to prove theory as true or false
Empirically valid consistent with data collected
Comprehensive refers to scope, explanatory scope of a particular
theory. Theories that explain more vs. less. In order to explain more,
more constructs are needed complicated theory is not desirable
Parsimonious to be simple and elegant, parsimonious and
comprehensiveness are traded off against each other
Useful (utility) prefer theory that generates solutions to human
problems; socially useful theories that address real life problems (I.e.
psychoanalysis and Behaviourism)
Generative excite scientists and provoke them to engage in new
research, prefer theory that challenges scientists
Daryl Bem Publication on pre-cognition, thoughts and feelings that
precede causes of thoughts and feelings (example of generative)
Sigmund Freud
Introduced several new terms that are used regularly, altered the way
we use the word dream, hysterical, egotistical, libido, unconscious,
conflicted, etc
Originally trained as a neurologist
Theorized that there may be psychological factors responsible for
symptoms such as blindness or pregnancy symptoms unconscious
conflicts symptoms were undersurface manifestation that caused
symptoms that could not be explained biologically
Freud find ways of getting at the conflict, bringing them out into
conscious light so that they could be resolved
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The Talking Cure = Psychotherapy
Psychosexual stages
Structure of Personality
Topography of Personality landscape of the inner-mind, conscious,
preconscious, unconscious
Introduction to the concept of the libido Freud influenced by physical
sciences. Freud believed that the human mind is a psychic system that
operates on basis of energy (libido) drives the psychological machine. Cannot
be created or destroyed. Human mind as mechanical and drive by energy.
Libido energy that emerges from instincts two instincts: life preservation
(survival) and sex and reproduction combined the two, one set of instincts
that are life preserving in nature
Definition of Libido= any life sustaining need satisfying or pleasure oriented
Innate energy
Adler challenged idea that everything can be reduced to life preserving urges
no, instinct towards destruction phanatos (sp?)
Freud believed there was a developmental sequence where libido became
focused that becomes organized around particular areas of the body libinal
Erogenous root eros
Believed as we develop sequence of stages that occur in organization of
libido each stage has particular developmental challenge that requires
Libido stages:
Oral stage; can infant rely on caregiver for gratification of needs
oOne personality structure in place id
Libido migrates after 18 months Anal Stage
oToddlers begin to have one of their more serious conflicts with
caregivers. By learning to manage own testinal activity you can
win mothers attitude metaphoric battle for whose will, will
win. Structure of the EGO
The Phallic Stage; as children are discovering the pleasure there are
new feelings.
oElectra complex and Oedipus complex
oCastration anxiety Freud speculated that boys terrified of
fathers retaliation will react by castrating the boy feelings of
terror that boy has, boy relinquishes feelings for mother
become just like dad instead process of identification with
father, starts to internalize fathers values
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