•John Watson – there are stimuli in the world that seem to reflexively
produce responses in living things. The things in the world that have
these reflexive consequences – UCS – unconditioned stimulus.
•Unconditioned stimulus – any event that automatically brings about a
particular response known as UCR (unconditioned response).
•Ex: puff of air to your eye causes you to blink spontaneously. The puff
of air is an unconditioned stimulus. It is an unconditioned stimulus b/c it
automatically has the association of an unconditioned response to it. You
will automatically blink with that puff of air. 2. A tap of a hammer to your
knee will produce an unconditioned response of knee jerk kick.
•There are things in the world called unconditioned stimuli and they
have the effect of reflexively producing responses. These responses occur
w/o any prior exposure to the stimulus. You don’t need to have any history
with the stimulus for it to produce the response in question.
•New stimuli could be paired with unconditioned stimuli. Through their
repeated pairing with an unconditioned stimulus they can come to acquire
the ability to elicit a response similar to the unconditioned response.
•In a repeated series of trials some new stimulus is paired with an
unconditioned stimulus. This pairing occurs repeatedly over learning
opportunities. This conditioned stimulus will overtime acquire the ability
to elicit a conditioned response. The conditioned will resemble the
unconditioned response but it will typically be smaller in magnitude.
•Ex: a puff of air to the eye is an unconditioned stimulus that elicits the
response of an eye blink, and then you can create a learning situation over
20 trials where you sound a bell and blow some air in to your eye and then
you blink. On the 21st trial, we sound the bell you, you blink, but then we
don’t blow the air. Now the bell alone elicits the blinking response. The
blink will not be the same response as the reflexive response, but now
there is a new stimulus that has acquired the ability to elicit a response
that it did not have previously.
•During pretesting you wouldn’t just start to blink your eyes when you
heard a bell but after a series of learning trials during which the stimulus
is associated with an unconditioned stimulus that it becomes the
conditioned stimulus eliciting the conditioned blink response.
•Albert – taking a white rat which Albert showed no prior history of
being frightened by and then pairing that exposure with a very loud noise.
Over repeated trials the baby becomes terrified of the rat, because of the
unconditioned stimulus (the loud noise) with which it had been paired.
White rats and any white object that resembled a white rat also produced
a fear response in Albert. This showed not only the strength of the
conditioned response and the associative learning but how that learning