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Lecture 3

week 3 gender

11 Pages
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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYB30H3
Professor
Oren Amitay

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Week 3 Gender, Society, and Culture
Evolutionary approaches to personality adopt a nativist approach. It
emphasizes all of the things we bring into the world. It emphasizes all of
the architecture that is preestablished b4 we are born into the world. It
tends to emphasize all of the innate knowledge we have before we even
begin the process of learning as infants and children and later on as
adults
Behavioral approaches learning based approaches that have their
root in the behaviorist tradition in the early 20th century. These
approaches adapt an empiricist viewpoint emphasizes all that we do
not bring into the world. We come into this world as blank slates
tabula rasa learning experiences imprint knowledge, structure and
process on top of that otherwise blank state.
There are tension b/w evolutionary approaches and Behavioral
approach the former which emphasize innate knowledge the things
we are born with, and the latter which emphasizes the learning through
which we imprint on knowledge on what is otherwise a blank slate.
Truth –a mix of both approaches.
Gender Socialization: the idea that gender roles are socialized
attributes. They are things that we are taught to have as part of our
early learning experience.
Efficacy ones ability to perform given a certain set of
circumstances/challenge.
Human agency Bandura - active deliberate role we play in shaping
our own worlds/own environments.
Behaviorism emerges as a response to psychoanalysis. There is a
growing disenchantment with the psychoanalyst reliance on all of these
unobservable processes, unconscious mechanisms none of which can be
reliably discerned or experimentally investigated. There is disapproval
with the psychoanalyst constant reference with these hidden
unconscious processes. The processes are very limited in their ability to
generate predictions about future behaviors. Psychoanalysts are good at
explaining why somebody has done what they have done.
The emphasis for Behaviorism was on observation, on observable
behavior and events, on experimentation, the elicitation of behavior
under controlled environmental conditions, on replication, simplicity of
explanation. Emphasis on its parsimony - the very small number of
terms they need to introduce in order to explain a wide range of
behavior.
1
www.notesolution.com
John Watson there are stimuli in the world that seem to reflexively
produce responses in living things. The things in the world that have
these reflexive consequences UCS unconditioned stimulus.
Unconditioned stimulus any event that automatically brings about a
particular response known as UCR (unconditioned response).
Ex: puff of air to your eye causes you to blink spontaneously. The puff
of air is an unconditioned stimulus. It is an unconditioned stimulus b/c it
automatically has the association of an unconditioned response to it. You
will automatically blink with that puff of air. 2. A tap of a hammer to your
knee will produce an unconditioned response of knee jerk kick.
There are things in the world called unconditioned stimuli and they
have the effect of reflexively producing responses. These responses occur
w/o any prior exposure to the stimulus. You dont need to have any history
with the stimulus for it to produce the response in question.
New stimuli could be paired with unconditioned stimuli. Through their
repeated pairing with an unconditioned stimulus they can come to acquire
the ability to elicit a response similar to the unconditioned response.
In a repeated series of trials some new stimulus is paired with an
unconditioned stimulus. This pairing occurs repeatedly over learning
opportunities. This conditioned stimulus will overtime acquire the ability
to elicit a conditioned response. The conditioned will resemble the
unconditioned response but it will typically be smaller in magnitude.
Ex: a puff of air to the eye is an unconditioned stimulus that elicits the
response of an eye blink, and then you can create a learning situation over
20 trials where you sound a bell and blow some air in to your eye and then
you blink. On the 21st trial, we sound the bell you, you blink, but then we
dont blow the air. Now the bell alone elicits the blinking response. The
blink will not be the same response as the reflexive response, but now
there is a new stimulus that has acquired the ability to elicit a response
that it did not have previously.
During pretesting you wouldnt just start to blink your eyes when you
heard a bell but after a series of learning trials during which the stimulus
is associated with an unconditioned stimulus that it becomes the
conditioned stimulus eliciting the conditioned blink response.
Albert taking a white rat which Albert showed no prior history of
being frightened by and then pairing that exposure with a very loud noise.
Over repeated trials the baby becomes terrified of the rat, because of the
unconditioned stimulus (the loud noise) with which it had been paired.
White rats and any white object that resembled a white rat also produced
a fear response in Albert. This showed not only the strength of the
conditioned response and the associative learning but how that learning
2
www.notesolution.com
generalized to new stimuli based on how similar those stimuli were to the
conditioned stimulus.
Skinner important role in the history of the learning theory b/c of the
extensions he made, to associative learning. He extended Watsons
behaviorist tradition, beyond the Pavlovian conditioning into the more
complex arena of voluntary behavior.
Not all behavior is reflexive. It is very difficult to understand the
stimulus that is driving the human behavior. What was the stimulus that
produced the response? Ex) a child enters a room unsupervised, and finds
a bookshelf. W/o proper supervision the child will try to climb it like a
ladder?
There is no stimulus that caused the child to climb the bookshelf like it
was a ladder. There was nothing caused the child to climb the bookstore,
rather the presence of the bookshelf gave the occasion/opportunity to
climb. What are the consequences that come from climbing the bookshelf?
If you slip and fall after losing your grip on the bookshelf. The
consequences of his behavior that determines what the boy will learn.
OPERANT APPROACH TO LEARNING: Not learning by association
but learning through consequences. We act in the world, and our actions
have consequences. If those consequences are (+) they increase the
likelihood that we will behave that we will behave similarly in the future.
If the consequences are (-) they decrease the likelihood that we will
behave that we will behave similarly in the future.
Thorndikes law of behavior: Cat had to unlatch the door to get the
food. 1st time, through trial and error opens the latch and takes the food.
With each trial the time elapsed decreases for the cat to open the latch.
The access to the food when the cat is able to escape produces a satisfied
state of affairs. The state of affairs of being fed is satisfying to the cat.
There is a learning that occurs through the consequence of its own
behavior. Those behaviors that produce the desired consequence (hitting
the latch that opens the door), then become rewarded, and are encouraged
to occur in the future.
Skinner wanted to not to consider the satisfied state of affairs that
existed in the cats mind. He was a radical behaviorist so he only wanted
to focus on what was observable. We have no access to what goes on in the
cats behavior. Whats available is the cats behavior, and the
consequences, and the relationship b/w them.
Reinforcement those stimuli that increase the probability of a
behavior/or the response that follows it. Ie) rewards. Ex child behaviors
in a good way. Praising the child is a reward, increases the likelihood that
the child will behave that way in the future.
3
www.notesolution.com

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Description
Week 3 Gender, Society, and Culture Evolutionary approaches to personality adopt a nativist approach. It emphasizes all of the things we bring into the world. It emphasizes all of the architecture that is preestablished b4 we are born into the world. It tends to emphasize all of the innate knowledge we have before we even begin the process of learning as infants and children and later on as adults Behavioral approaches learning based approaches that have their root in the behaviorist tradition in the early 20th century. These approaches adapt an empiricist viewpoint emphasizes all that we do not bring into the world. We come into this world as blank slates tabula rasa learning experiences imprint knowledge, structure and process on top of that otherwise blank state. There are tension bw evolutionary approaches and Behavioral approach the former which emphasize innate knowledge the things we are born with, and the latter which emphasizes the learning through which we imprint on knowledge on what is otherwise a blank slate. Truth a mix of both approaches. Gender Socialization: the idea that gender roles are socialized attributes. They are things that we are taught to have as part of our early learning experience. Efficacy ones ability to perform given a certain set of circumstanceschallenge. Human agency Bandura - active deliberate role we play in shaping our own worldsown environments. Behaviorism emerges as a response to psychoanalysis. There is a growing disenchantment with the psychoanalyst reliance on all of these unobservable processes,unconscious mechanisms none of which can be reliably discerned or experimentally investigated. There is disapproval with the psychoanalyst constant reference with these hidden unconscious processes. The processesare very limited in their ability to generate predictions about future behaviors. Psychoanalysts are good at explaining why somebody has done what they have done. The emphasis for Behaviorism was on observation, on observable behavior and events, on experimentation, the elicitation of behavior under controlled environmental conditions, on replication, simplicity of explanation. Emphasis on its parsimony - the very small number of terms they need to introduce in order to explain a wide range of behavior. 1 www.notesolution.com John Watson there are stimuli in the world that seem to reflexively produce responses in living things. The things in the world that have these reflexive consequences UCS unconditioned stimulus. Unconditioned stimulus any event that automatically brings about a particular response known as UCR (unconditioned response). Ex: puff of air to your eye causes you to blink spontaneously. The puff of air is an unconditioned stimulus. It is an unconditioned stimulus bc it automatically has the association of an unconditioned response to it. You will automatically blink with that puff of air. 2. A tap of a hammer to your knee will produce an unconditioned response of knee jerk kick. There are things in the world called unconditioned stimuli and they have the effect of reflexively producing responses. These responses occur wo any prior exposure to the stimulus. You dont need to have any history with the stimulus for it to produce the response in question. New stimuli could be paired with unconditioned stimuli. Through their repeated pairing with an unconditioned stimulus they can come to acquire the ability to elicit a response similar to the unconditioned response. In a repeated series of trials some new stimulus is paired with an unconditioned stimulus. This pairing occurs repeatedly over learning opportunities. This conditioned stimulus will overtime acquire the ability to elicit a conditioned response. The conditioned will resemble the unconditioned response but it will typically be smaller in magnitude. Ex: a puff of air to the eye is an unconditioned stimulus that elicits the response of an eye blink, and then you can create a learning situation over 20 trials where you sound a bell and blow some air in to your eye and then you blink. On the 21st trial, we sound the bell you, you blink, but then we dont blow the air. Now the bell alone elicits the blinking response. The blink will not be the same response as the reflexive response, but now there is a new stimulus that has acquired the ability to elicit a response that it did not have previously. During pretesting you wouldnt just start to blink your eyes when you heard a bell but after a series of learning trials during which the stimulus is associated with an unconditioned stimulus that it becomes the conditioned stimulus eliciting the conditioned blink response. Albert taking a white rat which Albert showed no prior history of being frightened by and then pairing that exposure with a very loud noise. Over repeated trials the baby becomes terrified of the rat, because of the unconditioned stimulus (the loud noise) with which it had been paired. White rats and any white object that resembled a white rat also produced a fear response in Albert. This showed not only the strength of the conditioned response and the associative learning but how that learning 2 www.notesolution.com
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