Week 7 Lecture NotesWeek 7 - Goals & Strivings 1
THE LEGACY OF DAVID C.MCCLELLAND
Introduction to Social Motivation
•McClelland's Defination of a Motive / Need
A recurrent preference or readiness for a particular quality of experience, which
energizes, directs, and selects behavior in certain situations.
Motivational preferences are like lenses through which we see the world, it filters the
experience into the kinds of qualities that are most relevanta nd meaningful to you. It
affects the way we see the world and differentiates it from the way other people see the
Motive does not equal trait.
Traits refer to the questions of "what" (What behaviors does people show? What
feelings are someone prone to having?)
Motivational constructs refer to the questions of "why"
Motive does not equal Conscious Intention
We can look into ourselves and see the intention we have.
But there are certain motivations that are only partly accessible by consciousness,
these unconscious motivation shape us the way we are.
•How do you measure something that people are not aware of?
We can't use self report because people can't report on what they are not aware of.
We use Thematic Apperception Test (TAT)
It is a standardized sequence of cards that have pictures on it.
The participant is instructed to lookat the picture and write a story of what's going on
in the picture. (a man and woman sitting next to a river etc... )
The participant then writes the story baesd on the SAME sequence of pictures in
which all participants see.
The pictures themselves don't have fixed stories embedded in them, the story content
that people write reveals the underlying needs, conflicts, and complexes that subjects
"project" onto the picture. Because they're being projected onto the picture reflecting
their inner selves.
TAT = "projective test"
Developing a TAT Scoring System
They begin with a rough theory of the kinds of conditions under which a particular
motive may be temporarily elevated.
Then, they create "themes" that differentiate the stories written under motive arousal
conditions from those written under neutral testing conditions. They use several
motive arousal conditions as part of this process (they tell a person that the pictures
test their achievement motivations or leadership motivations, that would elevate the
inner achievement motivations of the individuals)
Then, use those themes as part of a scoring system to asses the motivation of
individuals. Assume that those individuals who show more frequent thematic
imagery have a higher baseline level for that specific motive. (now if a neutral person
writes a similar story as the achievement motivation person, then the neutral person
has a high baseline level of motivational achievement)
Criticisms of the TAT
Poor reliability (low internal consistency)
Poor criterion validity (because of the poor reliability, it's hard to have good validity)