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Lecture 9

PSYB32H3 Lecture Notes - Lecture 9: Social Relation, Parenting Styles, Child Neglect

Course Code
Mark Schmuckler

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Psyb20-lec 9
-context and influences that help the child learn to behave and become part of the social world
-diff types of contexts, but 2 that rise to the top
-1. Family
-2. Peer structure and context
The family
-most important context, unique source of ties for the child, child experiences commitment
-affection bonds are formed with parents, siblings…and these last
-social relation forms the prototype for the types of relationship that will occur during the rest
of the childs life
-conflicts and discipline first experiences, such as riveraly for resources, gets first lessons of
compliance and cooperation and how to influence other people’s behave
-survival of group living arrangements
-lot of non human primates that live insocial groups
-but humans form into family units
-where does the family unit come from what are the functions and purpose
Five functions necessary for the survival of society
Reproductions: means of remplacing dyin members
Economic: good services must be produced and distributed for support
Societal order: means for reducing conflict and reducing conflict
Socialization: train the young to be contributing members to the environment
Emotional support: binding ind together to provide support during times of needs
-it use to be necessary for the family to maintain these, but now its just to much to only rely on
the family, so we have institutes that help, such as school, government, church.
-in economic the family use to be the basic unit of economic activity, the family could produce
enough that the fam could provide, but now that has been taking over by work, work produces,
family is consumption
-children use to contribute to economic, you could get work out of them, now they are
economic liabilities (don’t get good work out of them they just cost you money)
-family unit is still involved in reproduction, socialization and emotional support
-these are the ones that are mostly related to children
Social systems view of family socialization
-family is not seen as unidirectional influence
-the influence is bidirectional, the parents influences the child but the child influences the
-there are reciprocal causal effects

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-this is effected by other family relationships such as child to child, or parent to parentwhich
has an impact on child as well
-parents feel confidence towards the relation to their child, when they fell better about their
own marriage
-these influences change over time, as child grows the relations between the family change
-you have to place these relations in an overall context, there are interchanges that occur
between boundary of inner fam and outer external world
Ex: community connections are signi for the well beign of the family
Formal organization:schools daycares
Informal organizations: friends neighbors
-it is more much more likely to be fragmented connection in urban, more connected in rural
-when you have strong ties in the community you see lower rates
-social ties are alleviated the stress that can occur in families
Why are social ties effective buffers against family stress
-social support provide parents with interpersonal acceptance, neighbors can talk to parents
about their fears or parenting issues, this can enhance parents self confidence
-social ties provide an opportunity for the exchange of information, or goods and services, do
you know a good babysitter, wheres the best grocery store? This helps the parents relationship
makes things easier
-community connections cant provide controls and or methods for child rearing, parents can
see different method and models and they can receive feedback from other parents of what
they see as effective methods
-community connections provide secondary adult influences, as the child becomes more active,
they come into connection with other adults and these other adults can have an influence on
the childs life as well
Dimensions of parenting warmth
-parents who are high on this dimension are accepting of the child,
-how responsive is the parent to the child, this shows the warmth, how many positive emotions
do they show
-warm parents respond to the childs needs instead of frustrating, they praise the child even
when they didn’t do anything to merit it
-warm parents are successful at socializing children and raising them
-study: notion of responsiveness waxler
Asked parents to keep track of childs behavior when child saw someone in distress, how did
they respond, did they confort the playmate
They borught in the parents and categorized them in high responsiveness or low. Those who
were high, their children were much more likely to comfort hurt playmate then a child of a less
responsive parent
Less responsive parents child were the ones who caused the playmates distress, and how likely
were they to engage in reperation? Make it up to them? Less responsive parents child was less
-so parent warmth has an effect on the childs behavior, young children can be very affective
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