PSYB32H3 Lecture 3: Lecture 3

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5 Feb 2016
Lecture 3 - Developmental Psychology
Slide 3 – Baby
-When babies are born, they come equipped with capacities that aid in adapting to their
-These capacities are organized and meaningful.
-Babies have a number of reflexes.
-Some are valuable for survival.
-Whereas, others disappear within the first year of life.
Slide 4 – Reflexes
-Behavioral repertory, they are automatic, important for survival: root, sucking
-Defensive actions, eye blinking
-Less obvious reflexes eg. Toe grasp, stepping (folding a new born upright, having feet touch
surface, and moving them side to side, the baby will move their feet and looks like walking,
disappears within two months and reappears when they begin to learn to walk
-Why do they disappear/appear: suggests byproducts of evolutionary process or it is still valuable
Slide 5 – Reflexes’ Value
-Helpful to parents/doctors to assess nervous system
-Signals for signals or auditory problems, important to assess baby’s status
-Tools to assess: presence or absence of these reflexes
Slide 6 – NBAS
-Neonatal behavioural assessment scale: reflexes, adds asses other behaviours that the baby can do,
28 of these actions eg. Vision attention to inanimate objects or holding a baby in a supine position,
holding a cloth over eyes see if baby does any defensive behaviors
-Examines behaviors in isolation and social interaction
-Used by parents to enhance parental assessment
Slide 7 - infant state
-Changes of infants arousal levels from very high to low these changes follow a pattern the pattern
suggests its organized and predictable, tells us that we respond to changes that occur within us
-Researchers incorporate babies in different states in different environments
Slide 8 – Infant crying
-Earliest communicate to their caregivers
-Compared to the separation and begging calls from other mammals
-The ability to recognize different cries to give proper care
Slide 9 – types of cry
-Basic cry – hunger
-Angry cry – not happy
-Pain cry – discomfort
-Moms have innate interest in caring for children, notion of maternal instinct
Slide 10 /11
-Sexual dimorphism: maternal instinct
-Examined parental responsiveness to familiar and unfamiliar infant crying.
-An experiment where they have their children’s cry, and the other half another babies cry, two
types of cry (pain/discomfort), have parents identify which cry and if its their baby
-Found for their own baby, mom is more accurate 97%, dads 84%
-Unfamiliar baby, mom 75%, dad 44%
-Autonomic responses: mothers have defensive felt the need to go to the baby to soothe baby, dads
orienting responsive, acknowledge the baby’s crying but didn’t have the need to soothe baby right
-Subjective responsive: feeling of pleasants or tension while listening
Slide 12
-compared to other mammals, the father is much more caring time spent with your baby is a key
Slide 13
-compared paternal and maternal responsiveness (identify cry, and the time spent with baby per
-parents are good at identifying baby but time spent with baby is an important factor
-fathers who spent more than 4 hours are as good as mother identifying babys cry
-suggest, more the experience of child rearing than the sex
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