PSYB45H3 Lecture Notes - Lecture 1: Classical Conditioning, Ethology, Autism Spectrum

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Published on 8 Jan 2018
School
UTSC
Department
Psychology
Course
PSYB45H3
Professor
Lecture 1: The Behaviour Modification Approach
Introduction !
What is Behaviour?!
-anything a person says or does !
-overt behaviours — visible to others, can be easily observed and recorded; e.g. steps taken!
-covert behaviours — private, internal, can’t be easily observed, e.g. feelings/thoughts !
-dimensions of behaviour — duration (how long it lasts), frequency (how often it happens
within a certain period of time), intensity or force (speed, volume, how hard you hit smthg) !
-have to be precise and specific when describing behaviours and behavioural problems!
-focus on behaviours instead of labeling the person as the problem; e.g. dog is not bad, he
just does bad things which can be changed !
-behavioural deficits — too little of a certain behaviour !
-behavioural excesses — too much of a certain behaviour !
What is Behaviour Modification?!
-most important part of it is strong emphasis on defining problems in terms of behaviour that
can be measured in some way and using changes in behavioural measure of problem as
best indicator of extent to which problem is being helped!
when you measure it, you can define it as too much or too little and by measuring it again,
you can see if it’s happening more or less and that tells you if you’re helping or not!
this modification can be self-regulated or by another person, such as a therapist !
works for overt and covert behaviours, hard to isolate those things so usually both are
happening at the same time (e.g. both can be getting fixed simultaneously) !
-treatment focuses on ways of altering person’s current environment to promote better
functioning — focuses on various factors (incl. person’s behaviours) that contribute to the
problematic behaviour; altering stimuli in their environment; e.g. putting out gym clothes on
bed to promote the goal of exercise because everything is already there !
-behaviour modification methods and rationales can be described precisely — e.g. how you
change the stimuli, what you change, etc. !
-techniques of it are used by people in everyday lives — New Year’s resolutions, parenting,
coaching, pet training, quit smoking, getting exercise, changing eating/studying habits, self-
help books !
-techniques come from basic and applied research in science of learning, drawing on
principles of operant and Pavlovian conditioning!
-emphasizes scientific demonstration that specific intervention was responsible for a
particular behaviour change !
-high accountability is placed on everyone involved in behaviour mod. programs — ethics !
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Document Summary

Overt behaviours visible to others, can be easily observed and recorded; e. g. steps taken. Covert behaviours private, internal, can"t be easily observed, e. g. feelings/thoughts. Dimensions of behaviour duration (how long it lasts), frequency (how often it happens within a certain period of time), intensity or force (speed, volume, how hard you hit smthg) Have to be precise and speci c when describing behaviours and behavioural problems. Focus on behaviours instead of labeling the person as the problem; e. g. dog is not bad, he just does bad things which can be changed. Behavioural de cits too little of a certain behaviour. Behavioural excesses too much of a certain behaviour. Behaviour modi cation methods and rationales can be described precisely e. g. how you change the stimuli, what you change, etc. Techniques of it are used by people in everyday lives new year"s resolutions, parenting, coaching, pet training, quit smoking, getting exercise, changing eating/studying habits, self- help books.