Lecture Note For PSYB45, Lecture 13

59 views2 pages
20 Jul 2010
School
Department
Course
Chapter 13
Establishing a Desirable Behavior by Using Escape and Avoidance Conditioning
Escape conditioning
- States that there are certain stimuli who removal immediately after the
occurrence of a response will increase the likelihood of that response.
- Similar to aversive punishment in that both involve the use of an aversive
stimulus (or punisher), but they differ procedurally in terms of both the
antecedents and the consequences of behaviour. The antecedent in escape
condition, the aversive stimulus must be present prior to an escape response,
whereas the aversive stimulus is not present prior to a response that is
punished.
- With regards to consequences, in escape conditioning, the aversive stimulus is
removed immediately following a response, whereas in punishment the
aversive stimulus (pr punisher) is presenting immediately following a
response.
- In punishment, the likelihood of the target response is decreased, and the
likelihood of the target response in escape conditioning is increased.
- Another name for escape conditioning is negative reinforcement. The term
reinforcement indicated that it is analogous to positive reinforcement in that
both strengthen responses. The term “negative indicates that the
strengthening effect occurs because the response leads to the removal of an
aversive stimulus.
- Escape conditioning does have the disadvantage that the aversive stimulus
MUST be present for the desired response to occur.
Avoidance conditioning
- States that behaviour will increase in frequency if it prevents an aversive
stimulus from occurring.
- Escape response removes an aversive stimulus that has already been
presented, which an avoidance response prevents an aversive stimulus from
occurring at all.
- Warning stimulus- something that signals that an aversive stimulus will
occur (ex. A clicking sounds before the tone sound occurs). Also called a
conditioned aversive stimulus
- Discriminated avoidance conditioning - type of avoidance conditioning,
which includes a warning signal that enables the individual to discriminate a
forthcoming aversive stimulus.
Pitfalls of Escape and Avoidance conditioning
- There are many ways in which people unknowingly apply escape and
avoidance conditioning with the result that undesirable behaviours are
strengthened. For example, teachers with persons with developmental
disabilities often unknowingly maintain problem behaviour of persons through
escape conditioning.
www.notesolution.com
Unlock document

This preview shows half of the first page of the document.
Unlock all 2 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in

Document Summary

Establishing a desirable behavior by using escape and avoidance conditioning. States that there are certain stimuli who removal immediately after the occurrence of a response will increase the likelihood of that response. Similar to aversive punishment in that both involve the use of an aversive stimulus (or punisher), but they differ procedurally in terms of both the antecedents and the consequences of behaviour. The antecedent in escape condition, the aversive stimulus must be present prior to an escape response, whereas the aversive stimulus is not present prior to a response that is punished. With regards to consequences, in escape conditioning, the aversive stimulus is removed immediately following a response, whereas in punishment the aversive stimulus (pr punisher) is presenting immediately following a response. In punishment, the likelihood of the target response is decreased, and the likelihood of the target response in escape conditioning is increased. Another name for escape conditioning is negative reinforcement.

Get access

Grade+20% OFF
$8 USD/m$10 USD/m
Billed $96 USD annually
Grade+
Homework Help
Study Guides
Textbook Solutions
Class Notes
Textbook Notes
Booster Class
40 Verified Answers
Class+
$8 USD/m
Billed $96 USD annually
Class+
Homework Help
Study Guides
Textbook Solutions
Class Notes
Textbook Notes
Booster Class
30 Verified Answers