Class Notes (905,556)
CA (538,426)
UTSC (32,636)
Psychology (7,991)
PSYB45H3 (337)
Lecture 13

Lecture Note For PSYB45, Lecture 13

2 Pages
96 Views

Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYB45H3
Professor
Christian Campbell

This preview shows half of the first page. Sign up to view the full 2 pages of the document.
Chapter 13
Establishing a Desirable Behavior by Using Escape and Avoidance Conditioning
Escape conditioning
- States that there are certain stimuli who removal immediately after the
occurrence of a response will increase the likelihood of that response.
- Similar to aversive punishment in that both involve the use of an aversive
stimulus (or punisher), but they differ procedurally in terms of both the
antecedents and the consequences of behaviour. The antecedent in escape
condition, the aversive stimulus must be present prior to an escape response,
whereas the aversive stimulus is not present prior to a response that is
punished.
- With regards to consequences, in escape conditioning, the aversive stimulus is
removed immediately following a response, whereas in punishment the
aversive stimulus (pr punisher) is presenting immediately following a
response.
- In punishment, the likelihood of the target response is decreased, and the
likelihood of the target response in escape conditioning is increased.
- Another name for escape conditioning is negative reinforcement. The term
reinforcement indicated that it is analogous to positive reinforcement in that
both strengthen responses. The term “negative indicates that the
strengthening effect occurs because the response leads to the removal of an
aversive stimulus.
- Escape conditioning does have the disadvantage that the aversive stimulus
MUST be present for the desired response to occur.
Avoidance conditioning
- States that behaviour will increase in frequency if it prevents an aversive
stimulus from occurring.
- Escape response removes an aversive stimulus that has already been
presented, which an avoidance response prevents an aversive stimulus from
occurring at all.
- Warning stimulus- something that signals that an aversive stimulus will
occur (ex. A clicking sounds before the tone sound occurs). Also called a
conditioned aversive stimulus
- Discriminated avoidance conditioning - type of avoidance conditioning,
which includes a warning signal that enables the individual to discriminate a
forthcoming aversive stimulus.
Pitfalls of Escape and Avoidance conditioning
- There are many ways in which people unknowingly apply escape and
avoidance conditioning with the result that undesirable behaviours are
strengthened. For example, teachers with persons with developmental
disabilities often unknowingly maintain problem behaviour of persons through
escape conditioning.
www.notesolution.com

Loved by over 2.2 million students

Over 90% improved by at least one letter grade.

Leah — University of Toronto

OneClass has been such a huge help in my studies at UofT especially since I am a transfer student. OneClass is the study buddy I never had before and definitely gives me the extra push to get from a B to an A!

Leah — University of Toronto
Saarim — University of Michigan

Balancing social life With academics can be difficult, that is why I'm so glad that OneClass is out there where I can find the top notes for all of my classes. Now I can be the all-star student I want to be.

Saarim — University of Michigan
Jenna — University of Wisconsin

As a college student living on a college budget, I love how easy it is to earn gift cards just by submitting my notes.

Jenna — University of Wisconsin
Anne — University of California

OneClass has allowed me to catch up with my most difficult course! #lifesaver

Anne — University of California
Description
Chapter 13 Establishing a Desirable Behavior by Using Escape and Avoidance Conditioning Escape conditioning - States that there are certain stimuli who removal immediately after the occurrence of a response will increase the likelihood of that response. - Similar to aversive punishment in that both involve the use of an aversive stimulus (or punisher), but they differ procedurally in terms of both the antecedents and the consequences of behaviour. The antecedent in escape condition, the aversive stimulus must be present prior to an escape response, whereas the aversive stimulus is not present prior to a response that is punished. - With regards to consequences, in escape conditioning, the aversive stimulus is removed immediately following a response, whereas in punishment the aversive stimulus (pr punisher) is presenting immediately following a response. - In punishment, the likelihood of the target response is decreased, and the likelihood of the target response in escape conditioning is increased. - Another name for escape conditioning is negative reinforcement. The term “reinforcement” indicated that it is analogous to positive reinforcement in that both strengthen responses. The term “negative” indicates that the strengthening effect occurs because the response leads to the removal of an aversive stimulus. - Escape conditioning does have the disadvantage that the aversive stimulus MUST be present for the desired response to occur. Avoidance conditioning - States that behaviour will increase in frequency if it prevents an aversive stimulus from occurring. - Escape response removes an aversive stimulus that has already been presented, which an avoidance response prevents an aversive stimulus from occurring at all. - Warning stimulus- something that signals that an aversive stimulus will occur (ex. A clicking sounds before the tone sound occurs). Also called a conditioned aversive stimulus - Discriminated avoidance conditioning - type of avoidance conditioning, which includes a warning signal that enables the individual to discriminate a forthcoming aversive stimulus. Pitfalls of Escape and Avoidance conditioning - There are many ways in which people unknowingly apply escape and avoidance conditioning with the result that undesirable behaviours are strengthened. For example, teachers with persons with developmental disabilities often unknowingly maintain problem behaviour of persons through escape conditioning. www.notesolution.com - Problem behaviours by persons with developmental disabilities frequently enable them to escape teaching situations, work, or performance or household cores. - Children might even establish inappropriate verbal behaviour by saying “I’ll be good” or “I won’t do it again” to escape or avoid punishment which will then persist and strengthen an undesirable behaviour. - Second pitfall is the inadvertent establishment of conditioned aversive stimulus, to which an individual then responds in such a way as to escape or avoid the. For example! coach constantly yells, criticizes and ridicules his athletes, and the athletes may show improved skills primarily to avoid or escape the wrath of the coach, but they are also very likely to avoid the coach too (who has become the condition aversive stimulus). If the coach’s coaching skills continue, some might even quit the sport entirely. www.notesolution.comChapter 13 Establishing a Desirable Behavior by Using Escape and Avoidance Conditioning Escape conditioning - States that there are certain stimuli who removal immediately after the occurrence of a response will increase the likelihood of that response. - Similar to aversive punishment in that both involve the use of an aversive stimulus (or punisher), but they differ procedurally in terms of both the antecedents and the consequences of behaviour. The antecedent in escape condition, the aversive stimulus must be present prior to an escape response, whereas the aversive stimulus is not present prior to a response that is punished. - With regards to consequences, in escape conditioning, the aversive stimulus is removed immediately following a response, whereas in punishment the aversive stimulus (pr punisher) is presenting immediately following a response. - In punishment, the likelihood of the target response is decreased, and the likelihood of the target response in escape conditioning is increased. - Another name for escape conditioning is negative reinforcement. The term reinforcement indicated that it is analogous to positive reinforcement in that both strengthen responses. The term negative indicates that the s
More Less
Unlock Document


Only half of the first page are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

Unlock Document
You're Reading a Preview

Unlock to view full version

Unlock Document

Log In


OR

Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


OR

By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.


Submit