Transferring Behaviour to New Setting and Making it Last: Generality of Behaviour
-we say that training produces “generality” when the trained behaviour transfers from the
training situation to the natural environment, when training leads to the development of a
new behaviour that has not been specifically trained, or when the trained behaviour is
maintain in the natural environment over time.
- Occurs when behaviour becomes more probable in the presence of one stimuli
or situation as a result f having been reinforced in the presence of another
stimulus or situation.
- There are several reasons for the occurrence of stimulus generalization:
1) The more physically similar two stimuli are, the more stimulus
generalization will occur between them (ex. Two similar looking
berries). This is an inherited (or unlearned) characteristic.
2) Stimulus generalization might occur from one stimulus to another
because we have learned that the two stimuli members of a stimulus
common element class- a set of stimuli that have some physical
characteristic in common (ex. A house with green shutters and a girl
with green socks)
3) Stimulus generalizations are members of an equivalence class- a set of
completely DISIMILAR stimuli that an individual had been trained to
match together (ex. The words “mutt” and “pooch” and a picture of a
dog). Such stimuli are functionally equivalent in the sense that they
control the same response. Both stimulus common-element classes
and stimulus equivalence classes are called concepts.
- respondent stimulus generalization happens when a respondent CR to a new
- This occurs when behaviour becomes more probable in the presence of a
stimulus or situation as a result of another behaviour having been strengthened
in the presence of that stimulus or situation.
- Response generalization occurs for several reasons:
1) Unlearned response generalization due to considerable physical
similarity of responses. The more physically similar two responses
are, the more unlearned response generalization will occur between
them. Example! if you leaned how to perform the forehead shot in
racquetball, chances are that you would be able to perform a forehead
shot in squash or tennis. Also, you would probably find rollerblading
relatively easy to learn if you have first learned to ice sate, because the
responses involved in the two activities are similar.
2) Learned response generalization based on minimal Physical
similarity of responses. Just as there are large classes of stimuli that