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Lecture 8

Lecture 8.docx


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYB45H3
Professor
Zachariah Campbell
Lecture
8

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Lecture 8 3/17/2012 9:10:00 AM
Chapter 15
Slide 2
Outset doesn't seem possible.
Based on animal research now applied in clinical research, different ways we can
manipulate reinforcement.
Using different reinforcement techniques.
Slide 3
Targeting one behavior (problematic behavior) and encouraging pro-social positive
behavior. Doing 2 things at once instead of using one technique like extinction.
Slide 4
DRA: Alternative behavior
DRI: Incompatible behavior. Distinction is subtle but if the behavior is mutually exclusive
of one another.
Slide 5
DRO: Other behavior
DRL: Low rates of responding
Slide 7
Allowing them to attain reinforce (same reinforcer supporting problem).
Slide 9
Lady trying to use ATM.
Are all ATM’s the same? No.
Stimuli vary within our world. Different places (banks, corner stores) have different ways
to interact with the item.
Going from one stimuli to one is the way you interact with it as opposed to what you
previously used.
Another example is a child’s good table manners.
If you can extinguish attention for bad and get for good behavior your doing DRA.
Slide 10
Can’t use hand for two different things at the same time.
Slide 11
1-Taking a taxi.
2-Put your hand’s to some other use like put your hands in your pocket.
3-Talking without swearing.
Slide 12
Could be social or automatic, positive or negative.
For maintenance we want intermittent reinforcement.

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For generalization make sure it happens outside this situation.
Slide 19
DR of other behavior: reinforcer presented only if PB does not occur during specified
time period
If response occurs…? You restart interval.
Reinforcement schedule is based on person for structure and delivery of reinforcement.
Length of interval is gradually increased until behavior is over.
Increase duration to eradicate behavior.
Slide 20
Momentary reduces behavior but allows it to occur for long period of time.
Slide 22
Less predictable
Ratio schedules are more valid. It can be effective in long run.
Easy to apply.
Slide 23
Why? If you don’t know reinforcer how can you provide anything using DRO?
Doesn't have to be the same thing as reinforcer problematic behavior.
Can ask if they have verbal skills, ask about things they enjoy. Ask teachers, parents,
etc. what reinforce their behavior-good or bad.
How to choose time? Make sure to match interval to baseline behavior. If it’s frequent,
interval will be shorter and reinforcer will be effective.
In absence depends on whole or momentarily.
Slide 25
Reinforced used: tokens
Which he could exchange for TV access, snacks, video games, and various play
materials.
His brain is becoming solid overtime like us so you need to help.
Did a functional analysis because for this it is important to know what triggers the
behavior (ABC), you want to make sure what the real reinforcer for that behavior is
without making assumptions. Because for some people it can be the experience of real
harm or social attention. It can be more than one thing. For Jerry it was the experience
of hurting himself (an automatic reinforcer), no social mediated reason.
Token system was very effective.
If he didn’t harm for a short period of time, he could exchange a penny which he got for
tangible items.
Slide 26

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Based on his baseline behavior they start at 2 minute.
Can have it reasonable so the person can monitor the behavior consistently.
When do you decide the time? Before you start or during the process?
Until he’s able to hit mark and it’s consistent you can move up to higher rate. That way
he won’t need resources (every 2 minutes).
After 2 years in the hospital, he was discharged to his parents who continued the
procedure successfully.
Using DRO to make an impact on someone’s life.
Slide 29
If behavior isn’t occurring, reinforcement is applied.
Slide 30
Omission Requirement
Schedule Interval Momentary
Fixed Fixed interval DRO (FI-DRO) Fixed momentary DRO (FM-DRO)
Variable Variable interval DRO (VI-DRO) Variable momentary DRO (VM-DRO)
Slide 34
You don't want to get rid of behavior completely. Just want low rates or low frequencies.
Example 1: raising hand in class (when kid raises hand all the time and doesn't give
other kids an opportunity).
Example 2: disruptive kid. You can reduce it, won’t get it to zero but can make it low.
Preferable option:
Desirable behavior will ultimately occur at a low rate.
Lowering a PB to a tolerable level.
Slide 35
DRO is no response. It’s a threshold number you can’t pass.
If you get through interval (ex: 10 minutes) and haven’t gone past 3 minutes, can get
for absence of higher rates.
Useful when:
Some of the behavior is tolerable.
Less is better.
Slide 36
If criterion exceeded, the clock starts again.
Not often used but successfully used in class.
Has been used in a clinic scenario.
Slide 37
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